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Learning outcomes

After completing this unit you should be able to:

Knowledge and understanding

  • evaluate end-of-life care approaches in the UK and challenges to care delivery.

Cognitive skills

  • evaluate the usefulness of theoretical models of death, dying and bereavement;

  • recognise the relevance of critical social perspectives associated with death, dying and bereavement.

Practical and/or professional skills
Author(s): The Open University

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3 When grief goes wrong

Most people experiencing a grief reaction do not need specific professional help, although everyone could probably do with as much support as they can get from friends and family. Indeed, labelling someone as ‘bereaved’ and therefore by definition different, and possibly in need of some form of intervention, may in itself be harmful. But sometimes the usual sequence of events does not go to plan; people may develop an excessively severe or extremely long-term reaction to their bereavement
Author(s): The Open University

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Learning outcomes

After completing this unit you should be able to:

Knowledge and understanding

  • demonstrate sound knowledge and critical understanding of multifaceted and diverse approaches to death, dying and bereavement;

  • explore multiple contexts of bereavement.

Cognitive skills

  • integrate different experiences of death, dying and bereavement with theoretical knowledge.

Practical and/or professional skills
Author(s): The Open University

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Introduction

This unit helps you to explore the extent to which death and dying in western societies are medical events and what aspects of death and dying might be neglected as a consequence. The unit covers the way that such things as medicine provide the context of the experiences associated with the end of life.

This unit is an adapted extract from the Open University course Death and dying
Author(s): The Open University

3.3 Concerns about being a carer

Some of the things people mentioned were:

  • financial difficulties
  • loss of status
  • relationships if someone gives up paid work
  • physical and emotional demands
  • fears for the future
  • having to ‘fight red tape’
  • worry that they might seem to be overreacting.

Through their work, Jonathan and Jane identify other areas for concern. These include:

  • neglect of carers' o
    Author(s): The Open University

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3.1 Caring relationships

Activity 1

Listen to the two audio clips. While you are listening, make notes on the different kinds of caring relationships being described. For each person, note down:

  • how they feel about being a
    Author(s): The Open University

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References

Bradley, J. and Specht, D. (1999) ‘Successful ageing and creativity in later life’, Journal of Ageing Studies, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 457–472.
Boyle, G. (2005) ‘The role of autonomy in explaining mental ill-health and depression among older people in long-term care settings’, Ageing and Society, vol. 25, no. 5, pp. 731–748.
Gilligan, R. (2001) ‘Promo
Author(s): The Open University

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3 Summary

This unit argued that managers should seek out and listen to service users' views, and considered some of the problems in doing this as well as models that are effective. It is not always straightforward or easy to engage service users in consultation but, like Jane Reast, the practice-led manager will think it is important to hear directly from service users, rather than always having knowledge and information mediated through the accounts of frontline workers.


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1.4 Service users' views: What services?

When people are consulted about the services they have received they express strong views not only about access to services but also about what those services are. For example, the shift from a home help service to a personal care service has raised many concerns. The consultations for the book this unit was based on and other research (see, for instance, Sinclair et al., 2000) both indicate that (unknown to managers) workers sometimes go beyond their allotted tasks in order to meet service u
Author(s): The Open University

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Introduction

The current political agenda requires service users' views to be incorporated into the design of health and social care services (Department of Health, 2006). Services are assessed by the quality of the outcomes they provide for users. Frontline managers are responsible for gathering service user views on their needs. Whose views should be taken into account? How do managers gather views? This unit helps you consider ways of getting feedback from service users, and shows the inclusive approac
Author(s): The Open University

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Acknowledgements

The content acknowledged below is Proprietary (see terms and conditions) and is used under licence.

Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following sources for permission to reproduce material in this unit:

The material acknowledged below contains Proprietary content which is used under licence (not subject to C
Author(s): The Open University

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3.1 Your life story

To begin our exploration of the four components of good practice we will be considering a very specific kind of knowledge, the kind of knowledge that for most of us remains private and is individual to each of us: our personal history or biography.

First of all, we invite you to think about the person whose life story you know best: yourself!


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2.3.1 Aspects of knowledge in social work

In the Aids to Practice cards you will see that there are 18 Knowledge cards presented in alphabetical order. Most of the cards relate to a specific approach to social work or theory about how to practise. While these cards are very useful prompts and reminders, they are not intended to provide a template of what you need to know without additional reading and support. For example, some of the information is extremely broad, such as the cards on Social Policy, Sociology and Psychology; these
Author(s): The Open University

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2.3 Component 1: Knowledge

What exactly is meant by knowledge and theory and how can it inform practice? This question cannot be fully answered here, but the following section maps out the kinds of knowledge that are relevant to practice.


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References

American College of Sports Medicine (2006) ACSM's Guidelines for Exercise Testing and Prescription (7th edn), London, Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins.
Pollock, M.L., Gaesser, G.A., Butcher, J.D., Després, J.P., Dishman, R.K., Franklin, B.A. and Ewing Garber, C. (1998) ‘ACSM position stand: The recommended quantity and quality of exercise for developing and maintaining cardiorespiratory and muscular fitness,
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1.1.3 Time

The recommended duration of an aerobic exercise session is dependent on several factors, such as the participant’s goals and fitness levels, and the intensity of exercise. Obviously, the higher the intensity of the exercise, the shorter will be its duration. As a general guide the ACSM recommends between twenty and sixty minutes of aerobic exercise, which can be undertaken either continuously – i.e. all at once – or intermittently – i.e. in shorter bouts accumulated during the day (AC
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3.4.5 What can be agreed about ethics?

Even though every person has an idea about what acting ethically means, when faced with an ethically contentious problem, or when it is not clear what will bring about the best outcome, ‘good’ people will act in diverse, and often opposing, ways, while maintaining they are ‘doing the right thing’. While ordinary individuals also have ethical responsibilities to one another (for example, to tell the truth), the duties owed by professionals to their users go beyond everyday ethical resp
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1.7 Models of health care delivery: the biopsychosocial model

Activity 4: The biopsychosocial model

0 hours 30 minutes

Read the following description of the biopsychosocial model and make notes on the positive and negative implications for lay us
Author(s): The Open University

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1.6.1 Introduction

The process of keeping up-to-date in your chosen subject area is useful for your studies and afterwards, for your own personal satisfaction, or perhaps in your career as part of your continuing professional development.

There are a great many tools available that make it quite easy to keep yourself up to date. You can set them up so that the information comes to you, rather than you having to go out on the web looking for it. Over the next few pages, you will be experimenting with some
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1.5.7 Referencing

We mentioned above that we need to reference sources to ensure we abide by copyright legislation. But there is another reason we need to give accurate references to items we use – so we can share it.

Consider this scenario. A friend says they’ve just read an interesting article where Joshua Schachter, founder of Delicious has spoken about why it isn’t a faceted search system, and you should read it. How would you go about finding it? Would you start looking in a news database, a s
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