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References

Allen, J. (2006) ‘Claiming connections: a distant world of sweatshops?’ in Barnett, C., Robinson, J. and Rose, G. (eds) A Demanding World, Milton Keynes, The Open University.
Barnes, D.K.A. (2002) ‘Invasions by marine life on plastic debris’, Nature, vol. 416, 25 April, pp. 808–9.
Barnett, C. (2006) ‘Reaching out: the demands of citizenship in a gl
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5 Conclusion

The issue of climate change draws attention to the power of human activity to transform the planet in its entirety, and it is brought into sharp focus by the predicament of low-lying islands like Tuvalu. As we have seen in this course, the issue of rising sea level and other potential impacts of changing global climate also point to the transformations in the physical world that occur even without human influence. Oceanic islands provide a particularly cogent reminder that the living things w
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5.2 What's in a phase?

In an engineering and scientific context, a phase is an arrangement of atoms that is identifiable through its recurrence – the same pattern is found time and again. For instance, the compound of hydrogen and oxygen that we call water turns up all over the place in the same form as a runny, colourless liquid; this is a specific phase of the compound H2O. In water, the atoms apparently organise themselves according to what they are and the ambient conditions of temperature a
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Keep on learning

Study another free course

There are more than 800 courses on OpenLearn for you to
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3.2 The principles of scanning probe microscopes

Scanning probe microscopy is a term that is applied to a set of imaging methods based on a common element: a fine stylus. In many ways, what scanning probe microscopes do is similar to what a gramophone does. A gramophone stylus scans a spiral groove (by travelling along it) on which information has been encoded in the form of undulations in the groove wall. Side-to-side and up-and-down movements of the stylus (which is mounted on one end of a rod supported and pivoted at its centre) as it fo
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3.1 Introduction

The atomic force microscope is a key visualisation tool for the ‘invisible’ world of micro and nano technology. Within it, right at the heart, is a probe tip that is itself a triumph of nanotechnology.

This section is going to begin with a fair amount of detail about how scanning probe microscopes of various types work, starting with a description of the scanning tunnelling microscope (STM). After that I want to concentrate on its close relative, the atomic force microscope. Then we
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1 Structural devices: a static role

The superb manufacturing techniques of microelectronics enable designers of integrated circuits to exercise complete control over the electrical characteristics of each component, such as a transistor, by specifying the shapes and sizes of their active regions. Using photolithographic mask-drawing software on their workstations, they can copy and paste blocks of identical devices all over the chip, knowing that when the design is finally realised in silicon, this extreme uniformity wil
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17 Part 3: 1 Overcoming obstacles to innovation

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4.8 Has the telephone led to any related or spin-off products?

There have been a number of branches of the telegraph and the telephone family tree where research and experiment into one technology have contributed to the development of another.

An early example was Edison inventing the phonograph. He'd been working on a telegraph repeater to record telegraph signals using a stylus to vibrate onto and indent a sheet of paper. The idea was that when the indented paper passed across the stylus again the indentations would cause identical vibrations an
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4 Part 1: 3 Inventing the telephone and living with the innovation

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3 Part 1: 2 Exploring innovation

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References

Bignell, V. and Fortune, J. (1984) Understanding Systems Failures, Manchester, Manchester University Press.
Buzan, A. (1974) Use Your Head, London, BBC Publications.
Checkland, P. (1981) Systems Thinking, Systems Practice, London, Wiley.
Fisher, W. and Hudson, J. (1997) Using diagrams – a diagram , unpubli
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4.2 Diagrams for understanding

Diagrams for understanding are best developed within the creativity phase, though sometimes you can go straight on to using a diagram more suitable to the connectivity phase. Most diagrams for understanding begin at the centre of the sheet of paper and work outwards. Buzan's (1974) spray diagram is built up from an initial idea with its branches; these branches have their own branches and so on until you reach the detail at the end of each twig. This technique is particularly useful fo
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5.2 The ‘answer’ in your dictionary

Exercise 9

Please now look at the definition of ‘religion’ given in a dictionary. We have used the Concise Oxford Dictionary definition for this exercise.

  1. Do you think that the
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Acknowledgements

This course was written by Dr Angus Calder

Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see terms and conditions), this content is made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 Licence

Grateful acknowledgement and thanks are mad
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5.2 Free verse

Although we can't make rules about what constitutes a poem, we can see that even when writing free verse, where lines and line-breaks may be irregular, form is still important. Free verse still makes use of technical effects: rhythms, grammatical structures, sound effects, etc. Also, it invariably still makes grammatical sense. Free verse, with its infinite elasticity, can recreate form anew in each poem, inventing a one-off organising principle which explains that particular poem.


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References

Avramides, A. (1997) ‘Intention and Convention’, in C. Wright and B. Hale (eds) A Companion to the Philosophy of Language, Oxford, Blackwell.
Blackburn, S. (1984) Spreading the Word: Groundings in the Philosophy of Language, Oxford, Clarendon Press.
Carroll, L.(1893) ‘Through the looking-glass and what Alice found there’, in Alice’s Adventures in Won
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2.9.2 Searle's objection

In ‘What is a speech act?’, John Searle introduces a memorable example of an utterance in which Grice's conditions are all met for it to mean one thing, but where the words used suggest that the utterance means something quite different, if it means anything at all. The conclusion Searle invites us to draw is that what our utterances mean is not exhausted by the speaker's intentions alone. An additional consideration is the meaning of the expressions used. If they don't match the intentio
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1 Why study the Classical world?

Welcome to A219_1 Introducing the Classical world. There will be many different reasons why you have chosen this course. You may have a lifelong fascination with the ancient world, and hope to nurture it by studying this course. Or you may know very little about it and are curious to know more. Alternatively, you may have been prompted by some of the many aspects of the Classical world that are present in our world today, be it physical remains, theatre, films, books, words or ideas. T
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3.1 Involving all of the senses

Becoming more aware of the everyday world around you involves more than just looking. If writing is a perceptual art then perception should involve all of the senses, not just the visual. You must also start to smell, feel, taste and hear the world you are trying to realise. So, in the made up scenario, when you see the man with the Scottie dog you might be too fearful to stroke his dog, but perhaps you could touch the cold metal bar where the dog was tied up – after he is gone, of course!
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