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2.4 Changing environmental attitudes

So, from the start of the Industrial Revolution, people have been aware that the development of an industrial economy brings problems as well as benefits. But the benefits, in terms of productive capability, mobility, convenience, cheap consumer goods, and profits, were usually felt to outweigh the disadvantages, particularly by those in positions of power. Many of the accompanying negative factors, such as poverty and unemployment, or the creation of more destructive machines of war, if they
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Introduction

Global warming: are we responsible? Is our environmental impact damaging the planet? This unit examines the use of ozone depleting technology, the impact of fossil fuel use and explores how the development of technology can influence the direction of a society. From the Industrial Revolution to the present day find out how we have changed the planet.

This unit is from our archive and is an adapted extract from Working with our environment: technology for a sustainable future (T172) whic
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Acknowledgements

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The material acknowledged below is contained in: Ordering the International: History, Change and Transformation (eds William B
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5.8 Review of criticisms of international rights

Activity 1

Review the four criticisms of rights at the international level discussed in the previous sections.

  1. Identify which of these criticisms are objections in principle to the discourse of
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4.2 Social and political justice

A particularly important set of debates arises in relation to different notions of distributive justice. Do notions of distributive justice apply to the rights of individuals and the acts that they commit, or do they also apply to states of affairs, to the pattern of the results arising from those actions? In the former case, an outcome is just or unjust if it arises from just or unjust actions; whereas in the latter, the principles of justice apply to the pattern of outcomes. This latter not
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4.1 Distributive and commutative justice

Justice is commonly thought to have two applications which Aristotle distinguished as ‘distributive’ and ‘commutative’ justice. The first, distributive justice, is concerned with the distributions of things (rights, goods, services and so on) among a class of individuals.

What is distributive justice?

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3.3 Examples of rights

Many things have been claimed as rights, as can be seen in the text of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in Table 1. One set of rights is citizenship rights. Primarily concerned with basic constitutional issues, these rights should, in Dworkin's phrase, ‘trump’ other considerations such as political
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2.1.1 Where did the attempt to define notions of rights internationally come from?

To some extent, this ideology of rights was new because it was expressed at the international level with new vigour, with the horrors of the Second World War and the calculated extermination of Jews, gypsies and others in mind. The discourse of individual rights had a stronger impact on international politics than at any time previously, as did the notion of a right to national self-determination. Yet this new departure for international politics also built upon ideas about rights that had be
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Learning outcomes

By the end of this unit you should be able to:

  • understand the different interpretations of internationally recognised notions of rights and justice;

  • give examples of implementing justice in an international sphere;

  • investigate questions in international studies;

  • analyse the different agencies of change in the international system.


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References

Allen, J. (2006) ‘Claiming connections: a distant world of sweatshops?’ in Barnett, C., Robinson, J. and Rose, G. (eds) A Demanding World, Milton Keynes, The Open University.
Barnes, D.K.A. (2002) ‘Invasions by marine life on plastic debris’, Nature, vol. 416, 25 April, pp. 808–9.
Barnett, C. (2006) ‘Reaching out: the demands of citizenship in a
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3.1 Voyages of discovery and settlement

In Section 2, we saw that there are momentous new and recently transformed flows that are impacting on island territories. Some flows have important precedents, and others may not be quite as novel as they first appear. In this section, we look more closely at some of the flows that have helped make, remake and sometimes
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2.4 Worlds in motion: the importance of flows

‘The sea had welled up suddenly through thousands of tiny holes in this atoll's bedrock of coral.’ Do you recall this passage in Lynas's (2003) account of his first days on Tuvalu in Reading 1A? For me, this gives an impression of the islands being quite literally porous, a solid ground that reveals itself, now and again, to be not so solid after all. Lynas offers this particularly striking example of the island's openness to the world around it as evidence of a growing vulnerability that
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2.2 Positive feedback and change

Simple positive feedback loops are easily illustrated since they are the mechanism through which anything changes rapidly. Take for example the explosion of water hyacinth when introduced into new environments:

Water hyacinth is a floating plant that has spread from South America to waterways around the world. It can cover the water so completely that it obstructs the movement of boats. Imagine a lake that is 10
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6.2 Refining the specification

The ideas for the boiler cut-out switch can now be based on some real knowledge about temperature effects. You are now ready to tackle the next exercise.

Exercise 7

List four temperature-dependent changes in material properties t
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3.2 Search engines and subject gateways

Although both search engines and subject gateways will help you find the resources that you need, the types of information that you find will differ.

Search engines such as Google and Yahoo! search the internet for keywords or phrases, and then show you the results. These results are not mediated by the search engines, and therefore you need to use your own judgement on the reliability of the results. You may, for example, find websites written by experts, alongside websites written by
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Module team

Academic staff

John Hughes (Course Chair – Development) Kevin Gowans (Course Chair – Presentation) Brian Hambling (Author and Consultant) Tony Pearce

Support staff

Tammy Alexander (Graphic Designer)

Sylvan Bentley (Picture Researcher)

Sue Betteridge (Editor)

Annette Booz (Compositor)

Philippa Broadbent (Print Buyer)

Sarah Crompton (Graphic Designer)


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4.5 Fibre in LANs

Fibre has been slower to be exploited in LANs than in the core transmission network, for similar reasons to the delay in the use of fibre in the access network, but as the data rate demanded of LANs has increased, the case for using fibre has strengthened.

Although Ethernet specifications (IEEE 802.3 series) have contained standards for the use of fibre backbones for some time, it was with the development of Gigabit Ethernet and 10 Gigabit Ethernet (10 GbE) standards that fibre became t
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4.2 Fibre in the core network

All new trunk transmission – that is, transmission between telephone exchanges – is now over optical fibre. Mostly it uses either PDH or SDH links. Year by year the data rates have increased, so that at the time of writing STM-64 products are available commercially.

SAQ 12

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4.1 Introduction

Additional material for this unit, by David Chapman, January 2005

The start of optical-fibre communication is generally identified with a paper published in 1966 (Kao and Hockham, 1966). It was not until about ten years later that it was commercially viable, but from then on there was more or less continuous development, with substantial research effort taking place both in industry and universities.

Innovation continues today, and this additional material introduces some
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7.4.5 Atomic layer deposition (ALD)

For very thin conformal films, where rate is unimportant but precise thickness control is critical, a form of CVD allows deposition one monolayer at a time. One precursor gas is introduced into the chamber, which is then pumped away leaving only a monolayer adsorbed onto the wafer and chamber walls. The second precursor gas can then be supplied to complete the reaction at the surface, and then this gas is pumped away along with any gaseous reaction products. This cycle is repeated several tim
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