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Thousands gather in Spain for anti-austerity march
Thousands from across Spain gather in Madrid to protest against austerity in what's come to be called "Dignity Marches." Rough Cut (no reporter narration). Subscribe: http://smarturl.it/reuterssubscribe More updates and breaking news: http://smarturl.it/BreakingNews Reuters tells the world's stories like no one else. As the largest international multimedia news provider, Reuters provides coverage around the globe and across topics including business, financial, national, and international new
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Terry Hodgkinson Inaugural Lecture
Terry has led the Regional Development Agency, Yorkshire Forward, as its Chair for seven years, overseeing the Agency in growing the economy of the Yorkshire and Humber region. He was honoured in the Queen’s Birthday Honours 2010 with the award of a CBE for services to business and regeneration and was recently appointed as a Deputy Lieutenant for West Yorkshire. He has recently launched his new business, entitled ‘Inspiration for Industry Education and Regeneration’. He holds a Visiting P
Author(s): Terry Hodgkinson,Leeds Metropolitan University

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Earth's physical resources: fossil fuels
The big issue of the 21st century is the impact burning fossil fuels is having on the global environment. This album considers what will happen when fossil fuels run out. What oil and gas resources have we got left and how can we sustain them? The two video tracks explore the connection between fossil fuels and climate change, determining that renewable energy is the only way to secure a sustainable future. This material forms part of the course S278 Earth's physical resources: origin, use and e
Author(s): The iTunes U team

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1.3.2 The reduction of chromosome number: meiosis

If you look at the chromosomes shown in Figure 8 you will see that they have been lined up in pairs. The members of each pair are of similar shape and size, and unlike the members of other pairs. At a molecular level these distinctions are maintained: the order of the bases in the DNA is very similar in both members of a pair, but is quite different from that found in other pairs. By ‘very similar’ we mean that the order of the particular genes on each chromosome of the pair is the same,
Author(s): The Open University

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1.3.1 Why are cells different?

Now let us go on with our story and assume that we have decided the time is right to have a baby. The primary requirement for conception is that healthy gametes should be produced. We shall therefore look first at how gametes are made, and then examine some of the factors affecting their quality. But we must start with an explanation of what gametes are, and what sets them apart from other kinds of cell. In other words, what makes gametes special? Gametes are the cells that fuse to form a new
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1.2.3 Mechanical methods of contraception

While hormone-containing pills represent a very sophisticated kind of contraceptive, mechanical contraceptives are a straightforward idea: they act by preventing sperm and egg from meeting. Mechanical contraceptives in their simplest form have been around since before Roman times; some are shown in Figure 4. The earliest ‘penis protectors’ were allegedly used less for contraception than as protection against disease, and as a badge of rank.

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4.7 Special circumstances?

Individuals can only attempt to alter risk factors they are aware of and need to be informed about what is relevant to them. Women and men have different considerations, and ethnic background can also have an influence on susceptibility to cardiovascular diseases. Such considerations require improved awareness based on reliable knowledge from scientific studies (see Author(s): The Open University

2.3 Examining Europa's surface

It is all very well speculating about conditions in an ocean below Europa's ice, but what evidence is there that it actually exists? After all, tidal heating might not result in ice melting on a global scale, and current geophysical models of Europa's internal structure (e.g. Figure 14 in Section 1.5) cannot te
Author(s): The Open University

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Learning outcomes

After studying this course, you should be able to:

  • understand some of the types of disease that might be treatable by gene therapy

  • understand the basic principals of genetic manipulation

  • understand the differences between somatic and germline gene therapy and some of the problems involved in these potential treatments

  • understand how genetics may be used in the design of drugs.


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2.1 Institutional science promotion events

Nowadays, engaging with science through an institutional science promotion event can be quite straightforward. You can find out about such events by, for example, reading posters in your local library, watching a science documentary on TV or browsing the internet. The range of such outreach events is remarkable – from long-standing mainstream programmes such as the Royal Society Christmas lectures on TV and the annual BA (British Association for the Advancement of Science) Science Week, to
Author(s): The Open University

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3 Risk perception

At first glance, the public response to the risk of a link between MMR and autism appears to be wildly disproportionate. From a scientific point of view, an association is unsupported by major epidemiological studies involving vast numbers of participants. Neither has evidence been presented of a plausible biological mechanism. Common sense would seem to dictate that the claim to any link simply lacks credibility and well-informed parents should behave ‘rationally’ and allow their childre
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1 The MMR controversy

The furore over the measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccination has rapidly escalated into a landmark controversy in the UK. Since the suggestion in 1998 by Dr Andrew Wakefield that MMR might be implicated as a cause of autism, a steady stream of claim and counterclaim has been played out in the scientific press, and newspaper headlines have see-sawed between condemnation and commendation (see the chronicle of events outlined in Author(s): The Open University

Learning outcomes

After studying this course, you should be able to:

  • understand more of the scientific factors that relate to the dispute about the safety of the MMR vaccine in the UK

  • assess the strength of arguments for and against the use of the MMR vaccine

  • show how issues of risk, trust, communication and media representation of science and medicine have a strong bearing on public perception of the MMR vaccine

  • explain why there is such a strong cons
    Author(s): The Open University

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2.3 Jupiter's atmosphere

The circulation of Jupiter's atmosphere is discussed in Section 1.5, and the movies below document various scales of atmospheric motion, including rotation of the Great Red Spot. The clouds forming the opaque 'surface' to Jupiter's atmosphere are presumed to be created by ammonia (NH3) condensing out of a vapour to f
Author(s): The Open University

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Conclusion

  • Freshwater is a finite and limited resource on Earth and, increasingly, much of it is polluted, by both pathogenic microbes and chemical contaminants.

  • Human demand for freshwater is increasing; in particular, water is required to irrigate crops to feed the rapidly expanding human population.

  • Water cycles globally, through the oceans, the atmosphere and freshwater river systems. At certain points in the cycle, water is purif
    Author(s): The Open University

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1.8 Geological fieldwork

Although much can be learned from samples of rocks in the laboratory or at home, the ‘natural habitat’ of rocks is outdoors. Here the distribution and layout of different rocks is visible wherever rocks are exposed in places such as stream beds, cliffs, rocky shorelines, quarries, or road cuttings. The exposed rocks can be studied in just the same detail as individual laboratory samples, and geological fieldwork allows the size and extent of each rock unit to be seen and the relationships
Author(s): The Open University

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1.6.2 Alerts

Online bookshops and some of the major search engines offer ‘Alerts’ services. These work by allowing you to set up a profile once you have registered on their site, and when there are items meeting your criteria you receive an email. The good thing about alerts is that you don’t have to do anything once you have set up your profile. The downside, particularly with alerts services from the search engines, is that given the extent to which internet traffic is on the increase whether new
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1.1.2 Key resources

When you need to find information in Arts or History, how confident are you that you know the best places to search (e.g. search engines, subject gateways, online databases etc.) to find the information you need?

  • 5 – Very confident

  • 4 – Confident

  • 3 – Fairly confident

  • 2 – Not very confident

  • 1 – Not confident at all

How familiar are you with journal articles as
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1.1.1 Assessing your current level of knowledge

If you explore all the resources and activities in this course, you might need to allow between two and nine hours to complete it.

Before you read this guide, why not use the self-assessment questions on the next screen to rate your current level of knowledge?

Print or save these questions and for each question, mark the most appropriate number on the scale. When you have finished, you can review your answers. A score of three or less might indicate a gap in your knowledge
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Effects of pollutants on the aquatic environment
Effects of pollutants on the aquatic environment is a free course. It begins with an introduction to water and goes on to briefly outline the major sources of water pollution (these being sewage works, manufacturing and industrial plants, the farming and animal husbandry sectors, landfill sites and urban surface water run-off). It considers the major water pollutants and describes the effects they have on water. Author(s): Creator not set

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