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5.4 The scanning tunnelling microscope

The scanning tunnelling microscope (STM) is a device of such extraordinary sensitivity that it can reveal the distribution of individual atoms on the surface of a sample. It can also be used to manipulate atoms and even to promote chemical reactions between specific atoms. The first STM was developed in 1981 at the IBM Laboratories in Zurich by Gerd Binnig and Heinrich Rohrer. Their achievement was recognised by the award of the 1986 Nobel prize for physics.

In an STM the sample
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3.1 Introduction

Section 2 used some simple examples to illustrate chemical periodicity. But how can we explain such periodicity? The answer lies in the way that the electrons in atoms are arranged about the positively charged nucleus. In chemical reactions, atoms change partners. We know that the outsides of atoms consist of electrons, so contact and connection between atoms is likely to take place through their electrons, and in particular, through the electrons in their outer shells. So similarities in
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1.2: Converting to geometric form

You have seen how any vector given in geometric form, in terms of magnitude and direction, can be written in component form. You will now see how conversion in the opposite sense may be achieved, starting from component form. In other words, given a vector a = a 1 i + a 2 j, what are its magnitude |a| and direction θ?

The first part of this question is dealt with using Pythagoras’ Theorem: the magnitude of a v
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8.1 Balanced argument

In many instances, we are not just concerned with arguing a particular case or taking a particular point of view, we are interested in looking at all sides of an issue and producing a balanced argument. This can be helpful in drawing conclusions on an issue.

Dimensions of the Global Food Crisis: Session 11
Barry Coates, Oxfam, New Zealand presents "Need and greed: Food security, trade and global supply chains". 44th Otago Foreign Policy School - Salmond Hall, Dunedin, New Zealand. Friday 26 June to Sunday 28 June 2009.
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5 Conclusion

The issue of climate change draws attention to the power of human activity to transform the planet in its entirety, and it is brought into sharp focus by the predicament of low-lying islands like Tuvalu. As we have seen in this unit, the issue of rising sea level and other potential impacts of changing global climate also point to the transformations in the physical world that occur even without human influence. Oceanic islands provide a particularly cogent reminder that the living things wit
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The interplay between leading and learning
Leadership in learning contexts is not confined to those who have it as part of their job title. Everyone has opportunities for leading - be it of learners, of colleagues in curriculum or project development, or more formally. Everyone also has the opportunity for learning. This free course, The interplay between leading and learning, explores the complex set of interactions between those involved for example, teachers and pupils, trainers and trainees, youth workers and young people.
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Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see http://www.open.ac.uk/conditions terms and conditions), this content is made available under a http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2

1.3.5 Corporate connections

As I mentioned in Section 2, what was happening in the factories of overseas contractors was said to have appeared remote to most, if not all, the chief executive officers of the clothing multinationals in the 1980s. Overseas contractors were selected on the basis of market price, quality and reliability, not on whether forced or child labour happened to be employed to stitch the product together. However, all that changed in the early 1990s when the geographical ties between the big retailer
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#391: Not the highest bidder: China’s crony capitalism and the large scale looting of public asset

Governance expert Prof Minxin Pei describes how collusion between China’s political and business elites have resulted in the privatization of public assets for enormous personal gain. He also explains why the current crackdown on corruption is but a band-aid and that a free media and liberal democracy may be the key elements to a lasting solu
Author(s): up-close@unimelb.edu.au (University of Melbourne)

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Rights not set

1.2.3 Basic principles

Whatever resource you choose to use to find information on the internet, many of the same principles apply. Each source that you use will probably look quite different from the one you tried before, but you'll notice that there are always features that are similar – a box to type your search terms in, for instance, or a clickable help button. Different resources refer to the same functions using different terminology, but the principles behind them are exactly the same. The trick is to chec
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Ned Beck's Diary
Another school year is coming to a close in Holton, Kansas. Final exams; class picnics; summer baseball teams forming--it could be May 2009--but 11 year old Ned Beck wrote this diary in 1880. This podcast features Ned's diary entries during late May. Moses and Mary Beck are enlarging their home to accomodate their full household: Ned, or Edward, their oldest son, his younger brother William, who is 7, and two daughters
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4.1.3 Global positioning system (GPS)

These days, it is possible to buy a device known as a global positioning system (GPS) to tell you where you are. Receivers are made for aircraft, ships, ground vehicles, and (as the one shown in Figure 6) for carrying in the hand.


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4.7 Build prototype/demonstrator

The physical models we talked about earlier are prototypes or demonstrators of a sort. However, for the purposes of making a clear distinction in the process, I'm referring here to prototypes or demonstrators as functioning preliminary models of the essential finished product or construction or service, bringing together all the elements of the design that may or may not have been previously physically tested (Author(s): The Open University

Introduction

This is the second in a series of three courses on Animals at the extremes. In order to get the most from it, you should have previously studied Animals at the extremes: The desert environment (S324_1). After completing this course you might like to complete the series by studying Author(s): The Open University

9 Notes to help you complete your assessment

To complete your portfolio, you must include a contents page indicating how your reflective commentary in Part A and your evidence in Part B are related. An example of a suitable format for the contents page is shown in Figure 1.

Click here  to view Figure 1 (PDF, 1 page, 0.1MB).

Although the requirements of Parts A and B are
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First-order differential equations

This unit introduces the topic of differential equations. The subject is developed without assuming that you have come across it before, but it is taken for granted that you have a basic grounding in calculus. In particular, you will need to have a good grasp of the basic rules for differentiation and integration.

This study unit is an adapted extract from the Open University course MST209 Mathematical methods and models, which is no longer taught by the University. If you want t
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2.3 Older lives and elder care homes: care and control

The de facto constitution of workhouses as ‘older’ spaces can be viewed as representing a precursor to public elder care homes as these developed later in the twentieth century. Indeed, the numbers of older people in such care homes today remains consistent with the 5 per cent of older people inhabiting workhouses at the end of the nineteenth century (Midwinter, 1997). Constituted as sites of care rather than control, these homes have nonetheless been subject to considerable critical scru
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Introduction to bookkeeping and accounting
Learn about the essential numerical skills required for accounting and bookkeeping. This free course, Introduction to bookkeeping and accounting, explains the fundamental rules of double-entry bookkeeping and how they are used to produce the balance sheet and the profit and loss account. First published on Fri, 26 Feb 2016 as Author(s): Creator not set

2.5 Using stars to probe the interstellar medium

The effects of interstellar material on starlight can be used to probe the properties of the interstellar medium itself. A few examples are:

  • The presence of particular interstellar atoms or molecules may be determined by identifying the observed spectral lines or bands.

  • The temperature of the gas may be determined from the relative strengths of different lines or bands produced by different energy state changes of the same atom or mol
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2.3 Movie 3 - Jupiter Polar Winds Movie

Jupiter Polar Winds Movie

View document4.4MB video/quicktime

Bands o
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