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Lab, Camera, Action: Transit of Venus
In June of 2012, one of the rarest predictable astronomical phenomena took place: Venus passed directly in front of the Sun, as seen from Earth. For more information, visit transitofvenus.org. As part of the Lab, Camera, Action! series, Dr Andrew Steele explores the science behind one of the rarest predictable astronomical phenomena of 2012: the Transit of Venus. Venus transit 2004 images courtesy of Dan Kiselman, Institute for Solar Physics and the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences Planet textu
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Money talks: Rise of the No Men

Since the financial crisis, compliance officers in charge of minimising banks’ regulatory woes have never been more in demand. Will banks reach peak compliance? Also, author Caroline Criado Perez exposes what she calls “data bias in a world designed for men”. Also, after Avengers: Endgame broke box office records, will Disney Hulk smash the streaming competition later this year? Philip Coggan hosts


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1.3 Summary

  • Modern sport and the media are closely linked in a variety of ways.

  • One area of connection is through big events and sports celebrities.

  • The media also provide routine coverage, scores, results, venue and scheduling details and everyday information, often at speed; for example, through the internet, and satellite and mobile phone technologies.

  • This type of coverage is illustrated by the example of English p
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6.1 Legitimating the powerful

The labelling perspective associated with Berger and Luckmann focuses on the processes by which some behaviours and types of people become marked out for social disapproval – targeted by the wider society as different and requiring some form of social response. Its virtue is that it challenges conventional assumptions that social problems exist ‘out there’ as obvious and commonly understood facts. Berger and Luckmann's perspective stresses the importance of language in shaping how we de
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6.3 Networks of objects

No serious program consists of a single object. Instead there will be a network of objects, which collaborate to achieve the functionality of the whole system. Figure 4 shows a network of objects representing a hotel, some guests and some rooms. This sort of diagram is called an object diagram or a snap
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5.3 Heat production

1.4 The origin of the vertebrates

Vertebrates such as ourselves are by definition animals with a backbone (or vertebral column, paired limbs, a skull and various other structures. Until recently vertebrates were thought to extend back only into late Ordovician times, some 450 million years ago. At this time fossils of strange-looking fish with bony headshields, such as Sacabambaspis (Atlas, pp. 70-71), appear in the fossil record. These jawless fish (called agnathans) are only very distantly related to the sole
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Introduction

You may be studying this course because you – or a member of your family or a friend – have been personally affected by cardiovascular diseases in some way. You may be professionally involved in looking after people with one of these diseases. Perhaps you are interested in health issues in general. Whatever your motivation or underlying reasons for studying this course, you will gain valuable insights into the extent of cardiovascular diseases and their treatment in the early twenty-first
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2.6 Combining probabilities

The probabilities described in Section 2.3 and Section 2.4 related to the outcomes of a single process, such as repeatedly tossing one coin. Now suppose you were to toss three separate coins simultaneously. What is the probability that
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Conclusion

If you are working through all the units in this series, you'll be aware that this course has taken a somewhat different tack from earlier ones. I've used rodents to explore some fundamental biological principles that have a relevance far beyond this particular order. It is especially appropriate to talk about issues such as biological success in connection with rodents, given their very wide geographical distribution and the very large number of rodent species and individuals. You'll recall
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5.3 The effect of environment on reproductive behaviour

Activity 5

Review your reading of Section 4.2 on the family lif
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8.6 Moving the goalposts

Fitzpatrick, M. (2004) Chapter 8 ‘The Lancet Paper’ taken from MMR and Autism: What Parents Need to Know, London, Routledge. Copyright © 2004 Michael Fitzpatrick.

If these researchers are able to prove cause and effect between immunisation and the described syndrome, they should do so straight away. If they are unable to do so they should publicly set the matter straight lest the health of
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3.5 Summary of Section 3

The developing organism is nudged onto different developmental paths by the environment in which it finds itself. Thus the experience of being premature, or of experiencing only horizontal visual stimuli, or of experiencing testosterone affects the kind of individual the organism becomes. And the effect of the environmental factors is both profound and enduring; the individual will, quite literally, never be the same again.


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When it doesn't make sense …

Why were you asked to try to understand some mathematics which was not clearly written? There will be times (hopefully not too many!) in the course of your mathematical studies when you will not immediately be able to follow a mathematical argument. In such circumstances it is very easy for your mind to boggle at the complexity of it all and to give up, feeling that you cannot understand any of it.

In Activity 8 you were asked to ‘make a note of the point when it becomes very difficul
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Does it make sense?

Example 3

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6.6.2 The World Energy Council scenarios

What are the possibilities for radical changes in our energy systems when viewed from a world perspective? There have been numerous studies of the various future options for the world's energy systems. One of the most recent and most comprehensive was produced in 1998 by the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA) and the World Energy Council (WEC), a version of which was published in 2000 as part of the United Nations' World Energy Assessment (United Nations Devel
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3.3 Nuclear energy

Nuclear energy is based on harnessing the very large quantities of energy that are released when the nuclei of certain atoms, notably uranium-235 and plutonium-239, are induced to split or 'fission'. The complete fission of a kilogram of uranium-235 should produce, in principle, as much energy as the combustion of over 3000 tonnes of coal. In practice, the fission is incomplete and there are other losses, but nevertheless nuclear fuels are more highly concentrated sources of energy than fossi
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5.3 Settlement, deforestation and endangered species

Box 4: Some indicators of New Zealand's environment*

The proportion of New Zealand converted to farmland is large by world standards (52 percent compared to the world's 37 percent in 1993). Although our human population density is comparatively low (13 people for each square kilomet
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2.3 The Industrial Revolution and its environmental impacts

The environmental issues you have identified in your answer to the first exercise are likely to be complex and difficult to unravel, yet alone resolve. Rather than attempt that at this stage I'd like to start this section with another question. Where does our material prosperity come from? To which one short answer would be 'The Industrial Revolution'. In the space of less than 100 years between the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, first Britain, then several other countries
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