For example, think about the inputs to the running of a commuter rail operation and the outputs from it. The diagram might look like the one in Figure 10.

When a line cuts an axis, the line is said ‘to intercept the axis at’ [the particular point]. In this example, the line cuts the vertical (y) axis at £10, so ‘the line intercepts the y axis at £10’. It can also be said that ‘the intercept with the y axis is £10’.

Author(s): The Open University

By the end of this unit you should be able to:

• understand the value of graphics as visual thinking tools;

• give examples of relevant graphics used in the business context.

Author(s): The Open University

Market segmentation and targeting is at the core of marketing strategy and consumers (or potential consumers) are the key stakeholder group for both commercial and social marketers. In this section we focus on those specific consumers whose behaviour is the focus of the social marketing activity.

In Section 3.2, the factors which impact
Author(s): The Open University

The extended Fishbein model, based on the theory of reasoned action, includes the following components to explain behaviour.

1. Attitude to the behaviour comprising:

• a. The strength of the expectancy (beliefs) that the act will be followed by a consequence.

• b. The value of that consequence to the individual.

This is the basic expectancy value approach. Returning to o
Author(s): The Open University

This is the risk that contractual returns will not be paid because the borrower's financial situation has deteriorated to the point that it is no longer able to service the debt. It is possibly the commonest type of risk in commerce generally, and you are probably familiar with it in some shape or form. It affects many areas of business decision-making over and beyond the specialised world of investment risk and return. Most large companies devote significant resources to the identification,
Author(s): The Open University

Our first question was: what is the mean expected total return for next year? We calculate this by taking each of the possible returns and weighting it by its relative probability. As our table is so simple and symmetrical, it is not difficult to see that the weighted mean return is 7% per annum.

Our second question was: what is the degree of risk or uncertainty in this mean figure? In other words, how widely dispersed are the possible outcomes around the mean expected outcome? The most
Author(s): The Open University

A fair return on investment is defined as one that compensates the investor for the risk incurred in making the investment – neither more nor less. Conversely, an excess return is one that over-compensates the investor for the risk incurred. Investors want to avoid investments that pay less than a fair return, while borrowers want to avoid paying an excess return. In this unit we shall:

• define more precisely what we mean by ‘risk’ in a fi
Author(s): The Open University

Finding your paperwork or electronic files can be a problem. You may find that even if you do have some sort of filing system, your structure soon gets quite large with files in multiple locations, which can be hard to navigate. You may find yourself making arbitrary decisions about which folder to place a document in. It may make sense now but in the future, when you look where you think it should be, it’s not there.

At times like this you may resort to the search command from the Wi
Author(s): The Open University

The date when information was produced or published can be an important aspect of quality. This is not quite as simple as saying that 'good' information has to be up to date.

## Activity

Here is an example of a news item from an onli
Author(s): The Open University

By presentation, we mean, the way in which the information is communicated. You might want to ask yourself:

• Is the language clear and easy to understand?

• Is the information clearly laid out so that it is easy to read?

• Are the fonts large enough and clear?

• Are the colours effective? (e.g. white or yellow on black can be difficult to read)

• If there are graphics or photos, do they help
Author(s): The Open University

Many news sources are now available online. Searching an online version of a newspaper is easier, quicker and more effective than searching through printed indexes, microfilm or actual newspapers.

Abyz News LinksA portal to online news sources from around the world, providing up-
Author(s): The Open University

Once you have a reasonably clear idea of what you are looking for and have identified potential consultants, you may need to find out more about them before you can choose. Ideally, you will gather information from as many sources as possible, and, as with any such information, evaluate its reliability and relevance to your particular context. The clearer you are about the nature of the intervention that you require, and the key features of the context in which this will occur, the better pla
Author(s): The Open University

The content acknowledged below is Proprietary (see terms and conditions) and is used under licence.

## Unit Image

Zohar_Manor-Abel

All other materials included in this unit are derived from content originated at the Open University.

## Author(s): The Open UniversityLicense informationRelated contentExcept for third party materials and/or otherwise stated (see terms and conditions) the content in OpenLearn is released for use under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share

A number of rating agencies, including credit rating agencies, have developed indices to measure corporate governance performance. Among the more well-known indices are FTSE-Institutional Shareholder Services (ISS) Corporate Governance Index, Standard & Poor's Corporate Governance Scores, Dow Jones Sustainability Index and Business in the Community Corporate Responsibility Index. Rating agencies can act as catalysts for corporate governance by either directly factoring corporate governance in
Author(s): The Open University

Normative pressures concern what we think we ‘should’ do. They concern our values and the broader social values to which we subscribe. Some organisations make explicit attempts to foster particular kinds of value (for example, in relation to customer service), but normative pressures also come from outside the organisation, such as from a particular professional or religious affiliation.

Institutional pressures are important for both private and public-sector organisations.
Author(s): The Open University

A vast literature on decision making stretches back over several centuries and encompasses a wide range of academic disciplines – from history and literature through to mathematics. This unit is not a comprehensive survey of this field. Rather, we have chosen a few key topics that will help you to think in broader ways about how you and others take decisions; we shall also introduce you to some themes in social science which have direct relevance to managerial decision making. In particular
Author(s): The Open University

This unit covers a few key topics that will help you to think in broad ways about how you and others take decisions; we shall also introduce you to some themes in social science which have direct relevance to managerial decision making. The approach of this unit is descriptive: rather than prescribing how you should make decisions we look at frameworks that will help you to understand how decisions are actually made. We aim to help you to develop greater insight into both your own deci
Author(s): The Open University

For most of human history, our influence on the planet has been small (i.e. sustainable). The waste produced by our presence has traditionally been dealt with by a process of dilution; burying things, or perhaps dumping them in the ocean, was a viable proposition because we were few and the land and the oceans were vast. Mankind was a minor perturbation on the planetary ecosystem. But with change as the ever-present factor, we grew in both numbers and influence.

In the last century, the
Author(s): The Open University

Projects do not always go according to plan. If problems develop during the closure period there are particular difficulties. The following story is told by an integration manager of an IT project.

## Activity 3

0 hours 15
Author(s): The Open University