Your synthesis of what you have learned needs to show you can comment critically and reflectively on the ways of learning you have used. Think about what you had to learn, how you learned it and make an assessment of how well you learned it. On reflection, would you change anything? If so, what would you do differently? Your synthesis does not have to be long (e.g. one side of an A4 page), but it does need to show you can think critically about your learning, relate it to specific work (that
Author(s): The Open University

Present notes/records to show you have planned to use skills to improve your learning and performance. Include:

• A review of your current capabilities and your goals over an extended period of time (at least three months). Indicate how your goals relate to the context in which you are working and your current capabilities.

Your evidence could include a skills audit based on the key skills criteria and other criteria given as part of your course
Author(s): The Open University

To clear the previous calculation, click the â€˜Câ€™ button.

Provided that no operation has been performed on an entered number, an incorrect entry can be deleted one digit at a time by clicking the â€˜Backspaceâ€™ button. (This is labelled â€˜Backâ€™ on some versions of the Windows calculator.)

Author(s): The Open University

This glossary is intended to provide a basic explanation of how a number of common mathematical terms are used. Definitions can be very slippery and confusing and at worst can replace one difficult term with a large number of other puzzling concepts. Therefore, where an easy definition is available it is provided here, where this has not been possible an example is used. If you require more detailed or complete definitions, you should refer to one of the very good mathematical dictionaries th
Author(s): The Open University

## 7.4.1 Range and inter-quartile range

So far in this section, you have seen that the mean, median and mode can all give a useful typical value of a set of data. However, there is further information that you can get from a set of data which can help to complete the picture.

Consider the following two sets of data.

Data set C: 113, 48, 26, 99, 64 The number of runs scored by
Author(s): The Open University

A pie chart is a diagram in the form of a circle, with proportions of the circle clearly marked. A pie chart is a good method of representation if we wish to compare a part of a group with the whole group. It gives an immediate idea of the relative sizes of the shares. So, for example, it can be used to consider advertising income. It can also be used to look at, say, shares of market for different brands, or different types of sandwiches sold by a store.

Author(s): The Open University

Tables are used as a way of describing what you are talking about in a structured format. They tend to be used to present figures, either as a summary or as a starting point for discussion. Tables are also probably the most common way of presenting data in educational courses.

Tables have always been compiled by someone. In doing so, the compiler may have selected data and they will have chosen a particular format, either of which may influence the reader. You need to be aware of the co
Author(s): The Open University

You can make a big difference to the effectiveness of any conference, and to your tutor group conference in particular.

We are going to discuss in turn the four main ways that you can help a conference work well:

• get involved;

• help people to get to know you;

• construct clear messages;

• take some responsibility.

To get the most out of conferencing on your course, get involved
Author(s): The Open University

3.1 Introduction

One of the most useful and rewarding things you can do with your computer is use it to communicate with your tutor, other students, and course staff.

If you like exchanging ideas and information, sharing support with other students, asking questions and getting feedback from your tutor, then online communication can add a whole new dimension to your learning:

â€œEmail from another student really kept me going
Author(s): The Open University

2.3 Learning more

Consider your main use for the PC, and check that you have the skills or knowledge you need. Although some students use spreadsheets and databases, the key skills for most students are:

• word processing study notes and assignments;

• searching for information on the web;

• using conferencing and email.

If you feel you need to know more about using your computer there are a number of options open to you.
Author(s): The Open University

When you're studying, following the sense of a piece of text may not be straightforward. Often, you'll need to rewrite the text as notes or a diagram. Equally, some diagrams will need careful reading, and you'll have to make notes or draw other diagrams. So, how can we read different types of diagrams?

## Author(s): The Open UniversityLicense informationRelated contentExcept for third party materials and/or otherwise stated (see terms and conditions) the content in OpenLearn is released for use under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share

2.1 Analysing text

Some people find it easy to use diagrams in their studies. But I realise that there are others who don't take to diagrams at all enthusiastically. If this is how you feel, please read what follows, as I am convinced that everyone can get something from using diagrams to help their thinking. However, if after working through these sections, you still believe that diagramming as an aid to studying is â€˜not for youâ€™, then don't force yourself into an approach that doesn't suit y
Author(s): The Open University

2.1 A lack of insight?

One of the curious things about learning to write essays is that you are seldom offered much insight into what you might be setting out to produce. You know only too well what your essays look like and what your tutor says about them, but you don't know what else you might have done. For instance, you have very little idea what other people's essays are like and what comments they get back. Perhaps you are told your essay ought to be â€˜more structuredâ€™ or â€˜less subjectiveâ€
Author(s): The Open University

1.4 Conclusion

The aim of this unit has been to try to draw together work on numbers and text, and to try to be helpful to those who, like me, find numbers and statistics rather unapproachable. Evidence is used in social science to convince us of the value of a claim, and is a crucial element in our evaluation of theoretical perspectives.

## Key pointAuthor(s): The Open UniversityLicense informationRelated contentExcept for third party materials and/or otherwise stated (see terms and conditions) the content in OpenLearn is released for use under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share

3.2 Consciousness of the body

Phenomenological theorists distinguish between the subjective body (as lived and experienced) and the objective body (as observed and scientifically investigated). These are not two different bodies as such (phenomenologists pride themselves on overcoming dualisms!); rather they are different facets of our experience and consciousness.

The body-subject, or subjective body, is the body-as-it-is-lived. I do not simply possess a body; I am my body (Merleau-Ponty, 1962
Author(s): The Open University

Introduction

The body has traditionally been treated as a biological object in psychology. However, some psychologists believe there is more to our bodies than that as they recognise that it is through the body that we relate to other people and the world about us. This unit explores one particular theoretical perspective on embodiment: the phenomenological psychological perspective. This is an approach to psychology that acknowledges the social nature of embodiment, placing embodied experience centre sta
Author(s): The Open University

References

Allport, D.A. (1987) â€˜Selection for action: some behavioural and neurophysiological considerations of attention and actionâ€™, in Heuer, H. And Sanders, A.F. (eds) Perspectives on Perception and Action, Hillsdale, NJ, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Baylis, G.C., Driver, J., Baylis, L. and Rafal, R.D. (1994) â€˜Reading of letters and words in a patient with Balint's syndromeâ€™, Neuropsychological, vol.
Author(s): The Open University

The binding of features emerges as being a very significant process when displays are brief, because there is so little time in which to unite them. With normal viewing, such as when you examine the letters and words on this page, it is not obvious to introspection that binding is taking place. However, if, as explained above, it is a necessary precursor to conscious awareness, the process must also occur when we examine long-lived visual displays. Researchers have attempted to demonstrate th
Author(s): The Open University

The results of the visual attention experiments we have considered can be interpreted as follows.

• Attention can be directed selectively towards different areas of the visual field, without the need to re-focus.

• The inability to report much detail from brief, masked visual displays appears to be linked to the need to assemble the various information components.

• The visual information is captured in parallel, but assemb
Author(s): The Open University

Before I summarise the material in this section, and we move on to consider attentional processes with clearly-seen displays, it would be appropriate to consider the relevance of the masking studies to the issue of attention. We began the whole subject by enquiring about the fate of material which was, in principle, available for processing, but happened not to be at the focus of attention. Somehow we have moved into a different enquiry, concerning the fate of material that a participant was
Author(s): The Open University