Two very different European sources of law have had an impact on our legal system since the middle of the twentieth century. In this sense, they are one of our most recent sources of law. These two sources are first, the organisation of member states referred to as the **European Union** (EU), and second, the **European Convention on Human Rights** (ECHR). They are distinct sources of law. They each act as a source of law in different ways.

Membership of the EU is by application.

The large volume of delegated legislation produced every year (some 3,000 SIs annually) means that it is very difficult for Members of Parliament, let alone the general public, to keep up to date with the present law. This is exacerbated by the fact that delegated legislation is made in private, unlike Acts of Parliament which are made following public debates in Parliament.

1.2 Balancing the right to privacy and other rights

Article 10 of the European Convention on Human Rights protects freedom of expression. Section 12 of the Human Rights Act 1998 requires the courts in the UK to have particular regard to the importance of the right to freedom of expression. However, freedom of expression and the right to privacy frequently collide. This can be illustrated by reference to the American case of *Anonsen v Donohue* (1993). In this case a woman revealed on national television that her husband had raped and impr

OpenLearn unit W100_5 Human rights and the law will explore the Human Rights Act 1998 and its effect and relationship with the ECHR. It is important to remember that both states and individuals can bring a case to the European Court of Human Rights (although some countries have tried to bring restrictions on an individual's right to do so). An individual must have first exhausted all remedies in their own domestic legal system. Both the court and the application procedure differs from that i

4.2.2 Private reports (1535–1865)

These reports bear the name they do because they were produced by private individuals and are cited by the name of the person who collected them. They were, however, published commercially for public reference. An ongoing problem with the private reports relates to their accuracy. At best, it can be said that some were better, that is, more accurate, than others. Of particular importance among the earlier reports were those of Plowden, Coke and Burrows, but there are many other reports that a

**1** The population of a village is 5481. Round this:

**(a)**to the nearest thousand people;**(b)**to the nearest hundred people.

1.6 Significant figures for numbers less than one

You can use the same procedure for numbers less than one.

## Example 4

In scientific work people deal with very small units of measurement. Suppose you read that the spacing between adjacent atoms in a solid was 0.000 002 456 84 metres. You could make the number more memorable by using two sign

**1** Round 2098 765

(a) to 1 s.f.

(b) to 2 s.f.

(c) to 3 s.f.

(d) to 4 s.f.

## An

**1** Round a measurement of 1.059 metres:

(a) to the nearest whole number of metres;

(b) to two decimal places;

## Author(s):

Using a calculator often gives a long string of digits. For example, 1 ÷ 3 might give .333333333. But very often, for practical purposes, this level o

Numbers are often approximated to make them easier to handle, but sometimes it doesn’t help very much to round to the nearest 10 or the nearest 100 if the number is very large. For example, suppose the monthly balance of payments deficit was actually £24 695 481. Rounded to the nearest 10, it's £24 695 480; and to the nearest 100, it's £24 695 500. But £24 695 500 is still a complicated number to deal with in your head. That's why it was rounded to £25 000 000 in the newspaper

5.1: What are the CPI and RPI?

The Consumer Prices Index (CPI) and the Retail Prices Index (RPI) are published each month by the UK Office for National Statistics. These are the main measures used in the UK to record changes in the level of the prices most people pay for the goods and services they buy. The RPI is intended to reflect the average spending pattern of the great majority of private households. Only two classes of private households are excluded, on the grounds that their spending patterns differ greatly from t

1.3: A statistical interlude—averages

**
Aims
** The main aim of this section is to discuss several ways of finding averages and to introduce you to the statistical facilities of your calculator.

A single number which is typical or representative of a collection (or batch - statistical term for a set of collected data.) of numbers is commonly referred to as an *average*. There are several different ways of defining such a number. Two are discussed briefly in Author(s):

After studying this Unit you should be able to:

calculate the mean, weighted mean and the median of a batch of numbers;

calculate a percentage and a percentage price increase;

use a weighted mean to find an average percentage price increase (given the weights);

use the statistical facilities of your calculator to find the mean, the median and (given the weights) the weighted mean of a batch of numbers;

calculate a perce

6.5.1 Another ‘making a lawn’ solution

## Example 18 Making a lawn

Suppose you have some friends who are planning to put a new lawn in their garden. The lawn is to be 12 m by 14 m and they have a choice of either laying turf or sowing grass seed. You have been asked to help them decide between the two.

Formulas are important because they describe *general* relationships, rather than *specific* numerical ones. For example, the tins of paint formula applies to *every* wall. To use such a formula you need to substitute specific values for the general terms, as the following examples show.

## Example 8

Do you want to improve your ability to subtract one number from another, especially if decimals are involved, without having to rely on a calculator? This unit will help you get to grips with subtraction and give you some practice in doing it.

You can start with some practice in subtracting small numbers in your head if you want to. Then we will show you how to subtract bigger numbers on paper. Finally we look at how to subtract decimal numbers.

You don’t need to complete the

How do you deal with divisions where there is a remainder and there are no more digits you can carry to? In most cases you will need to express your answer as a decimal number rather than as a whole number plus a remainder.

Take the example of 518 divided by 8.

In several different parts of the world, footprints from prehistoric human civilisations have been found preserved in either sand or volcanic ash. From these tracks it is possible to measure the foot length and the length of the stride. These measurements can be used to estimate both the height of the person who made the footprint and also whether the person was walking or running by using the following three formulas:

A *hyperbola* is the set of points *P* in the plane whose distances from a fixed point *F* are *e* times their distances from a fixed line *d*, where *e* > 1. We obtain a hyperbola *in standard form* if

the focus

*F*lies on the*x*-axis, and has coordinates (*ae*, 0), where*a*> 0;the directrix

*d*is the line with equation*x*=*a*/*e*.