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Learning outcomes

After studying this course, you should be able to:

  • explain the relationship between strategy and the ethical dimension of organisational purposes.


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1.2 Offshoring

The premise is straightforward. Given modern telecommunications capability, it matters little where telephone support is based. India, with a large population of English-speaking graduates and low (by Western standards) wage rates is an obvious choice. The significant cost-savings look very attractive to many organisations.

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The closure meeting

The final meeting is a time for celebrating successful completion. It could have a similar format to the launch meeting, and involve many of the same people. It might include:

  • reviewing the outputs or outcomes;

  • confirming the arrangements for any follow-up work;

  • thanking the team, the sponsor(s) and the stakeholders for their support;

  • presenting the completion report for approval and sign-off.

<
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1.3 Delivering with style

You can deliver the outcomes agreed with the minimum of fuss or celebration – or you can deliver with style. A project that is delivered so that it meets the outcome requirements exactly and is on time and within the budget allowed will usually be well received.

In many projects the moment of final delivery may not be clearly defined, as different elements may have different times and modes of delivery. However, each delivery offers an opportunity to please the client by making the pr
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1.2 What is handed over, and when?

Not all handovers are at the completion of a project. In some projects there might be several different types of handover, which happen at different stages. For example, the Tate Modern was built within the shell of a disused power station, and an early handover point was when the building was purchased and became the property of the Tate Trustees. Such a handover is significant when a building may present long-term problems (in this case, contamination from its previous uses).


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3.1 The idea

Essentially, any project begins with an idea. The idea is often one about how to do something that seems to be needed. Transforming ideas into projects begins with recognising the nature of this driving force:

Projects arise in order to meet human needs. A need emerges and is recognized, and the management determines whether a need is worth fulfilling. If it is, a project is organized to satisfy the need. Thus, nee
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2 Why projects fail – the dimensions of failure

Unfortunately, projects are not always completely successful and the consequences of an unsuccessful project can be significant politically, financially and socially for organisations and for the people who carry out the project. Considering the key dimensions of a project (budget, time and quality) there are three obvious ways in which one might fail:

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1.3 Examples of projects

  • A project might involve establishing a new product or service, developing an existing product or service or discontinuing a product or closing a service that is no longer required.

  • A project might arise from recognition of new needs of customers or service users or from an opportunity that is expected to deliver benefits to the organisation.

  • Projects might also arise from a new organisational requirement, for example, as a
    Author(s): The Open University

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1.2 What is expected from projects?

  • The project may be expected to deliver financial benefits to the organisation.

  • In the public sector projects are usually expected to lead to social, economic and political outcomes.

All projects are different. The level of complexity differs and the context in which a project exists will affect it. There is no single right way to manage a project. All projects have customers.

There are three key dimensions to a projec
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Acknowledgements

Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see terms and conditions), this content is made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 Licence

Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following sources for permission to reproduce materia
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Keep on learning

Study another free course

There are more than 800 courses on OpenLearn for you to
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2 Activity and questions

Listen to the following audio clip between Terry O'Sullivan, Senior Lecturer in Management at the Open University Business School, and Chris Stalker, Head of Campaigning Effectiveness at the National Council for Voluntary Organisations.

This audio clip is followed by a series of questions. It is suggested that you listen to the audio before attempting the questions.

Click to listen to the audio clip. (13 minutes)


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1 Problems facing campaigning organisations

This course aims to explore some of the problems campaigning organisations can encounter, and how such problems can be anticipated and even avoided. It consists of:

  • a short case study about a parent teacher association which is campaigning for the lowering of the speed limit on roads within the vicinity of its school.

  • an audio extract from a podcast interview on campaigning which forms part of the learning material for the OU Business Sc
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Mental Health: Lennox Castle
What was it like living and working in the largest mental deficiency hospital in Britain? And what changes led to its relatively recent closure? In it's heyday in the 1970s, Lennox Castle Hospital in Scotland housed over 1600 patients in purpose built multi-occupancy villas, and most staff lived on site or in nearby Lennoxtown. Oral historian Howard Mitchell started his working life there, as a member of the hospital's nursing staff. In the tracks on this album, he looks back at the history of
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An introduction to social work in Wales
Respecting the individuality of each person is a central value of social work but, as the term suggests, social work is not only about individual perspectives: it also takes place in a social context. Society, demography, geography, national legislation, national policy, and language all play an important part, both in the lives of service users and carers and in the practice of social work practitioners. This free course, An introduction to social work in Wales, will introduce you to the import
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6.1 Overview

These courses will introduce you to the Scottish legal system. Scots law today represents centuries of development and growth. Its evolution has been influenced by many factors, social and economic, the effects of war and religious change, political and governmental changes, alliances with overseas powers such as France, and Union with England. Since 1999, the new Scottish Parliament has had its own law-making powers.

The first course in this section provides a taster for a new course o
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5.7 Health, disease and society: Scottish influence in the 19th century

This course examines the roles of Scots who contributed to the comprehensive transformation of medicine in the nineteenth century. It begins by observing how laboratory practices led to improved techniques of medical diagnosis. This is followed by assessing how Scots contributed to the emerging collective identity of medical practitioners, as well as the improvements in licensing that led to reform of the medical professions. Many new developments in medical education also enabled women to qu
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5.3 Heritage case studies: Scotland

These case studies introduce various typologies of heritage and the methods used to study them. They help draw attention to the fact that the heritage traditions in England, Scotland and Wales are not the same and are enshrined in slightly different legislation. Every study of heritage requires an understanding of the legal context and the traditions and history governing the object of heritage.

The first case study, by Mary-Catherine Garden, involves public memories of two significant
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5.1 Overview

This section deals with the history of Scotland and is designed to stimulate thinking on some of the major events and themes which have shaped Scotland over a period covering the seventeenth century to the present day.

These selected courses introduce learners to Scotland's rich heritage and also to its wider European and international context.

If you are interested in learning more about Scottish history, The Open University runs a collaborative scheme with the University of Dund
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4.5 David Hume

This course examines David Hume's reasons for being complacent in the face of death, as these are laid out in his suppressed essay of 1755, ‘Of the immortality of the soul’. More generally, they examine some of the shifts in attitude concerning death and religious belief which were taking place in Europe at the end of the eighteenth century, through examination of this and other short essays.

Hume was a pivotal figure in the Scottish Enlightenment and his death in 1776 was widely an
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