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2.9 Painterly techniques

A sensuous use of colour subverted the neoclassical aesthetic, in which moral and intellectual messages – or, at the very least, a concept of ‘noble form’ – were intended to dominate. In the case of Delacroix, this attention to the effects of colour is heightened by a concern with the textural qualities of paint. In order to produce a matt but bright surface, he applied thin layers of oil glaze to an initial lay-in of distemper (see ten-Doesschate Chu, 2001, p.102). It is thoug
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2.8 Colour and light – exercise

Exercise 2

Compare the effects of colour and light in Sardanapalus with those in David’s Andromache mourning Hector (Plate 3). What similarities and differences can you see? (You may find it helpful to
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4.1 Inspiring loyalty to the leader

Official support for painting was motivated not simply by propaganda concerns but also by the belief that artistic achievements were crucial indicators of a regime's greatness. Part of the logic behind the emphasis on military painting, therefore, was the assumption that feats of arms and works of art both testified to the glory of Napoleonic rule. Traditionally, however, the most prestigious art form was the classical history painting, exemplified by David's Oath of the Horatii
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2.5 The emperor

With Napoleon's coronation as emperor in 1804, a new type of official image was once again required. Portraits of the emperor in his ceremonial robes were commissioned from several established artists; these all revived a traditional type of royal portraiture from the eighteenth century. The example shown in Plate 10 is by a former David student, Francois Gérard (1770–1837), by now a fashionable portrait painter (see Author(s): The Open University

2.1 The general

Even early on, when he was a brilliant young general winning battles in Italy, Napoleon was already well aware of the value of images in promoting his career. It was not only owing to his own initiative that he had his portrait painted at this stage, but also because it was advantageous for an artist to be associated with a national hero. Gros, who had gone to Italy to pursue his studies as a history painter but found himself practising portraiture out of financial necessity, got himself intr
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1.1 The state as patron

Most of the history paintings in the Daru and Mollien rooms have been in the Louvre, a royal palace that was turned into a museum in 1793, since the nineteenth century. Many of them were commissioned by the French state, which has a long tradition of promoting the arts for the sake of the personal glory of the ruler and the prestige of the nation as a whole. Many of the others were acquired by the state after being shown at the Salon, the public exhibition held at the Louvre every year
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Learning outcomes

After studying this course, you should be able to:

  • analyse paintings centred on the human figure in terms of how a work's form and content together produce its meaning

  • explain how and why French painting came to be used and controlled by the Napoleonic regime

  • discuss the problems of interpretation raised by Gros's Napoleonic paintings

  • locate Napoleonic painting within the broad shift from Neoclassicism to Romanticism in French art.
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Activity 26

Mainstream photographers, as we have seen, identified with traditions in the fine arts and aspirations of refinement and moral improvement. However, fairground and seaside operators exploited photography as a form of cheap popular entertainment. This and the fact that itinerants usually worked on spec rather than to commission ensured that they were generally viewed with contempt by the photographic establishment.

Contempt pervades the article entitled ‘Five minutes in a photographic
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4.11 Colouring

Image 40 Photographer/Painter: Moryson, Dumfries. Subject: Unknown young boy. Breeching portr
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4.6 Touch and feeling

Activity 12

Images 27 and 28 represent the conventional pose of the newly-wedded couple who would visit the studio sometime after marriage to commemorate the event with a portrait. (We shall look at wedding portraits a
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Stakeholders in marketing and finance
This free course, Stakeholders in marketing and finance, comprises two sections introducing the idea of customers and stakeholders for financial information. It also contains two activities in which learners are asked to relate the ideas discussed to their own work practice. None.
First published on Tue, 16 Feb 2016 as Author(s):
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Understanding management: I'm managing thank you!
This free course, Understanding management: I'm managing thank you! provides you with a set of ideas for developing your approach to managing your own work what we might call self-management. In order to do this, we will examine some of the key processes of management decision making, such as allocating time, staff, physical and financial resources: prioritising and problem solving and monitoring performance.Author(s): Creator not set

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2.6.1 The phenomenological perspective

The term ‘phenomenology’ is a good example of polysemy, as it has different meanings according to the academic context in which it is found. There are scientific phenomenology and philosophical phenomenology, for example, and the sociologists Ken Thompson and Kath Woodward describe phenomenology as, ‘The development in sociology of a philosophical approach which focuses on people’s consciousness of their experiences and how they interpret the world; the meaning it has for them’ (Tho
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1.10 Religion and the individual

How formal or informal, how personal or impersonal, how loose or how tight, how casual or demanding the religious community is will depend on the form of religion, the extent to which it is enforced and the level of the individual's commitment to it. It is worth remembering that just as people have certain expectations of religion, religions tend to have certain expectations of adherents. The sociologists Rodney Stark and Charles Glock (1968) have argued that although religious organizations
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Managing projects through people
The importance of managing people for the success of a project cannot be underestimated. This free course, Managing projects through people, identifies the groups and individuals whose appropriate involvement in a project is important for its success, and considers the ways in which their contribution might be maximised. First published o
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Introduction

The topic of ‘governance’ is one that has gained popularity, and the term is now used to embrace a range of concepts. This course establishes some basic principles that will form the basis of your study. You will have the opportunity to consider how well these principles match up with your own observations of corporate organisations and behaviour

This OpenLearn course provides a sample of postgraduate study in Author(s): The Open University

Introduction

Strategy is based on the unique relationship between an organisation's distinctive resources and capabilities and its environment. This relationship is defined as ‘strategic fit’ and is seen as a dynamic relationship where the organisation does not merely respond to its environment but seeks to shape it.

Organisations do not exist in a vacuum: they rely on and reflect the political, economic and social contexts within which they operate. These will include:

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Developing your skills as an HR professional
This free course, Developing your skills as an HR professional, will help you to develop some of the skills you will need to be effective as an HR professional. You will practise learning reflectively and you will also develop the skills of organising yourself, managing time and stress, and working in teams or groups. First published on Thu, 11 Feb 2016 as
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Introducing corporate finance
This free course, Introducing corporate finance, introduces you to the importance of finance and the role it plays in organisations. It explains the different functions of money and the ways in which finance is linked to organisational strategies. The course also explores the ways in which finance is linked to the governance of organisations, how organisations fund their activities, and the role of the finance and accounting functions. Author(s): Creator not set

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Working life and learning
What is your experience of work and what have you learned from this experience? This free course, Working life and learning, will enable you to reflect upon what you have learned from work and will support you in improving how you learn at work. It will encourage you to think critically about work-based learning and review your own professional knowledge and skills. Author(s): Creator not set

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