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11 Conclusion

Any assessment of Robert Owen is bound to be partial, because there are some gaps in our knowledge about both the man and his agenda. But we have seen the close links between his personal experience as an enlightened employer and the social philosophy presented in the essays, which found its ultimate expression in the community scheme and mutual cooperation.

Owen's most important ideas about character formation underpinned much of this philosophy. He has rightly been condemned for much
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1.10 Religion and the individual

How formal or informal, how personal or impersonal, how loose or how tight, how casual or demanding the religious community is will depend on the form of religion, the extent to which it is enforced and the level of the individual's commitment to it. It is worth remembering that just as people have certain expectations of religion, religions tend to have certain expectations of adherents. The sociologists Rodney Stark and Charles Glock (1968) have argued that although religious organizations
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3.1 The idea

Essentially, any project begins with an idea. The idea is often one about how to do something that seems to be needed. Transforming ideas into projects begins with recognising the nature of this driving force:

Projects arise in order to meet human needs. A need emerges and is recognized, and the management determines whether a need is worth fulfilling. If it is, a project is organized to satisfy the need. Thus, nee
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1 The incredible shrinking chip

Two Scottish computer engineers with little or no physics knowledge set out to make a semiconductor transistor. This was 50 years ago, and their efforts gained them the Nobel Prize. The versatility of that transistor is now at the heart of the electronics industry. Millions of transistor switches are shrunk down into the microprocessors that are found in computers, mobile phones and almost everything else electrical.

The first transistor took years to plan and make; today more are made
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4.2 Representing data

But if all the data and computer instructions within a computer are represented by 1s and 0s, how can this limited set of conditions be used to represent, for instance, every letter of the alphabet that might be typed into a computer from a keyboard? Activity 4 showed that there are four possible combinations of 1s and 0s
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4.1 Switches

I have just indicated that a processor is made up of millions of electronic components manufactured as one very complex circuit. The majority of these components act as switches that can exist in one of only two states, either on or off. The states of certain switches tell the processor what instructions to carry out. Also when a processor is running a program it is altering the state of other switches, switching them on and off many, many times a second.

To represent more easily what i
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Supporting children’s learning in the early years
How do young children learn, and how can adults help them? This album looks at how nursery teachers support children in their development. We follow a practitioner’s day, looking at how she works with children, observes and plans for further activities while she also records her thoughts and ideas using a video camera. Further video tracks reveal how creativity is nurtured in young children to develop their abilities, how an artist in residence works with nursery children, as well as how the
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Collaboration in the classroom
What teaching methods can be used to improve a school’s performance? What are the benefits of collaborating within an educational institution? Victoria school for the arts in Canada is ranked amongst the best performing in the country. Maths is now one of the school’s most successful subjects; however three years ago the department was underachieving. The appointment of Kevin Bissoon to the position of head of maths is credited with helping to turn around the school’s fortunes in that subj
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Introduction

There are many approaches to using film music in the classroom, including:

  • a focus on pupil experience;

  • a focus on the structure of composition;

  • a focus on the relationship between music and image;

This course will explore some of these approaches through various activities.

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1.5 Accountability

Social workers have to act within the law and can be called upon to justify their actions to courts and managers as well as to service users. The law can define a worker's accountability in some detail. Furthermore, service users have a right to complain. Social workers are also employees and thus can be called upon to justify their actions to their line management and agency; this will be outlined by their agency requirements.

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2.6 Evaluating behaviourism

As the previous section indicates, although ‘classic’ behaviourism is rare in contemporary explanations of child development, many of its guiding principles have been retained in some form or other in the field of learning difficulties. One of the advantages of behaviourism lies in its utility as a form of direct communication with children who are too young to speak, or who are otherwise difficult to communicate with about their behaviour. It resulted in decades of research, becoming the
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2.1 Violence towards children

For many children, the place where they experience most violence is in the home. Since the American paediatrician Henry Kempe first publicized the ‘battered child syndrome’ in 1962, the extent and nature of child abuse in the home has increasingly been recognized, and become the subject of research, legislation and social care practice. Following on from Kempe's claims that some children were routinely beaten and ill treated within their own families, other issues such as sexual abuse and
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Scenario examples from Cathy Moore: Branching scenarios for training

Samples of scenarios used in training. Maybe they’ll give you ideas for your own projects.


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Another dance ‘round the May poll: Brexit

Britain’s prime minister has promised to step down if Parliament passes her deal with the European Union. That has sparked a leadership contest that seems likely only to complicate the mess. As an American county declares a state of emergency over its measles outbreak, we discuss anti-vaccine misinformation and examine its grave consequences. And, your formal grammar knowledge has little to do with your grammar skills; it’s time to change how the subject is taught.


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Editor’s picks: March 28th 2019

A selection of three defining articles read aloud from the latest issue of The Economist. This week, Binyamin Netanyahu, prime minister of Israel, provides a parable of modern populism. Flaws in Bitcoin suggest that a lasting revival of cryptocurrencies is unlikely (9:20). And, why museums should return stolen art, but accept donations from almost anyone (18:57)


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What CEOs Can Learn from Roman Emperors
From marketing to management, modern business leaders can learn a lot from ancient Roman emperors, according to a new book.
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6.2 Objects

To represent a thing such as an account or a payment from an object perspective, the software developers need to say how it can be used. An account is something that can be credited or debited with amounts of money and that remembers the total balance between operations. As users of an account, we do not care whether the balance is represented by electrons or by numbers on a slate, or whether the numbers are represented in binary or decimal. As long as we can withdraw money at some time after
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6.1 Modularity and the object-oriented approach

In the previous sections we discussed software development processes and the role of modelling. In this section you will meet the main object concepts. Object-oriented programming preceded object-oriented development by many years, and it is where the object concepts originate. Once we have explained these concepts, we shall revisit software development and modelling in object terms.

One of the great successes of software engineering over the past 50 years has been the introduction of m
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5.2 Modelling techniques and language

Models are built using techniques. A technique is a tool to describe a particular way of viewing and understanding a system. It guides the creation of a model and defines the notation used to create it. This can be narrative or diagrams or even mathematics. Techniques deal with the complexity of a system, abstracting essential aspects and representing them as models.

A modelling language defines the notations used for many different techniques. The Unified Modeling Languag
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5.1 Domain, specification and design modelling

Building quality software is often a complex and lengthy task. Software developers build models that represent what is important, devoid of unnecessary detail. These models help them to deal with the complexity and to understand what is being developed.

This is not unlike other forms of design. For instance, when an architect develops model of a house as a set of drawings they will probably show where the walls and windows are and their relative sizes, but not any details about t
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