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Learning outcomes

After you have completed this unit you should be able to:

  • differentiate between and describe dissolution, degredation and corrosion as they affect the deterioration of structural materials;

  • predict electrochemical behaviour between dissimilar metals;

  • explain galvanic corrosion in terms of the electrochemical series;

  • distinguish between the hoop and longitudinal stresses in a pressure-vessel wall, and specify them in terms of the press
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References

Burroway, Janet (2003) Writing Fiction: a guide to narrative craft, 6th edition, Harlow: Longman.
Byatt, A.S. (2001) The Biographer's Tale, London: Vintage.
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1.1 Creating characters

Activity 1

Click on 'View document' below to read the first few paragraphs from Novakovich's chapter on ‘Character’.

8.4 Hinduism in eastern India: religion in Calcutta

The Hinduism of Bengal, as in other regions of India with their own languages and distinctive historical traditions, has absorbed and retained many local elements which make it peculiarly the Hinduism of Bengal. The city of Calcutta has exerted its own considerable influence upon the surrounding region. Calcutta, the capital of West Bengal, was founded in 1690 originally as a British trading post on the Hugli, a stretch of the Ganges (or Ganga), a river sacred to Hindus (see Author(s): The Open University

Learning outcomes

By the end of this unit you should be able to:

  • assess the specific problems concerning the health of a community;

  • describe how medical knowledge was a resource for, and was shaped by, broader cultural perceptions of the body.


Author(s): The Open University

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1.5 Further reading

Battersby, C. (1989) Gender and Genius: Towards a Feminist Aesthetics, London, Women's Press.

Kris, E. and Kurz, O. (1979) Legend, Myth, and Magic in the Image of the Artist: A Historical Experiment, New Haven and London, Yale University Press.

Soussloff, C.M. (1997) ‘The artist in nature: Renaissance biography’, The Absolute Artist: The Historiography of a Concept, Minneapolis, University of Minnesota Press, pp. 43–72.

White, H. (1990) Content
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References

Ayer, A.J., 1954. ‘Freedom and necessity’, in Watson 1982, 15–23.
Butterfield, J., 1998. ‘Determinism’, in Craig 1998.
Craig, E., 1998. Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy, London and New York: Routledge.
Chisholm, R.M., 1964. ‘Human freedom and the self’, in Watson 1982, 24–35.
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2.1 Introduction

We use the words ‘conscious’ and ‘consciousness’ in a variety of ways. We talk of losing and regaining consciousness, of being conscious of one's appearance and of taking conscious decisions. We speak of self-consciousness and class-consciousness, of consciousness-raising activities and consciousness-enhancing drugs. Freudians contrast the conscious mind with the unconscious, gurus seek to promote world consciousness and mystics cultivate pure consciousness. These various uses reflect
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2.1 Introduction

The distinction noted in section 1 between the representational properties of a linguistic utterance (its ‘meaning’) and the representational properties of a mental state (its ‘content’) gives rise, naturally enough, to the suspicion that one of these might be more fundamental than the other. In this section I will look at a theory, most closely associated with the British philosopher H.P. Grice (1913–88), to the effect that the source of an utterance's meaning is the speaker's mind
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3.3 Hygiene

Good hygiene – a clean home and a clean body – would also appear to have been available to all classes, but again, it was easier for the wealthier classes to achieve these goals. Newer houses, with bathrooms and laundries, modern plumbing and sanitary facilities, and servants to do the hard work, ensured that the middle and upper classes could enjoy regular baths (hot and cold), clean clothes and clean homes.

Exercise and good personal hygiene were not just a means of protecting hea
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4.3 Social factors in the growth of the asylum: social control, the family and the asylum

Both contemporary commentators and historians have argued that the pressures of capitalism resulted in families being not only less capable of supporting family members but also less tolerant of unruly behaviour. In Scull's phrase, the asylum became a dumping ground for ‘inconvenient people’. It is clear from contemporary admission documents, including private correspondence and diaries, that caring for a mentally ill relative put all sorts of emotional strains on families. Many strove in
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1 Case studies

The first case study in this unit, ‘Battlefields as heritage sites’ by Mary-Catherine Garden, involves public memories of two significant historical events, the battles of Bannockburn and Culloden. They have helped to forge national consciousness in Scotland but have little visible archaeological evidence to inform the viewer. Intangible heritage, linked to a physical site, presents problems of its own.

The second study examines the old and new towns of Edinburgh, its designation as
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Learning outcomes

By the end of this unit you should be able to:

  • understand the significant issues affecting heritage;

  • engage effectively in debates about heritage issues in Scotland.


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5.3 Hutton's geology: ‘No vestige of a beginning – no prospect of an end’

Geologists are engaged on the business of reconstructing the earth's past and determining the agents of geological change. The only documentary evidence of the earth's origins and ancient past, and of the agents that had caused change, available to Hutton was the book of Genesis, and he had sceptically put it aside, along with miracles. But what if the processes that are presently observable were to be taken as the key to the past? How far might geological enquiry go with the assumptio
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3.3 Training to weave kente

Activity 9

Once you’ve watched the video, make a few notes on how the kente weavers train.


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2.4.2 The visual arts

These are closely related to archaeology. They, too, are things we can look at and touch after all. The difference is very much one of interpretation. Are the Parthenon statues art or archaeology; is an ancient painted pot art or archaeology? In order to avoid such questions, many people use the term ‘material culture’ to cover both. For many purposes, the difference doesn't matter. In fact, it is a good illustration of the advantages of interdisciplinary work, with different kinds of app
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4.2 Raiding your past

The more you write, the more you will raid your own past. These incursions won't diminish or reduce your memories – rather those recollections can be enriched and become more fully realised. As Jamaica Kincaid says of her writing:

One of the things I found when I began to write was that writing exactly what happened had a limited amount of power for me. To say exactly what happened was less than what I knew happe
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6.6 Delacroix – exoticism and animal energy

It is significant that Delacroix characterised his genius as that of a wild animal, as the energy and exoticism of such creatures also inspired him as subjects. He went to see wild animals in the Jardin des Plantes, a botanical and zoological garden in Paris, and was fascinated by the large cats there (see Plate 43, A Young Tiger playing with its Mother). But, as with his Romantic predecessor Géricault, it was above all the horse that he used to express Romantic fury (see Plate 44,
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6.4 Recasting the Turkish identity

There was a similar ambivalence towards the Turks in music. The plots of eighteenth-century ‘Turkish’ operas had represented Turks as both unenlightened barbarians and enlightened humanitarians. Rameau’s The Courtly Indies (1735), for instance, encompasses four tales of love, the first of which, entitled The Generous Turk, is set in Turkey. It features a magnanimous pasha – a convention followed in two works both generally known as The Unexpected Encounter, Gluck
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3.9 Delacroix’s early career – exercise

Exercise 3

In order to sum up your work on this section, jot down some notes on how Delacroix's early career might be seen as moving away from a respect for the classical tradition and for the reason and order demanded of classical com
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