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8 Part B: Evidencing your IT skills

This Part requires you to present a portfolio of your work to demonstrate that you have used and integrated your IT skills within your study or work activities to achieve the standard required. For example, you might include learning about new software for a particular task, using databases and other resources more effectively in searching for information, setting up and using different ways of communicating and sharing information, setting up and using computer-based models to predict, expla
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1 2.2 Reading a table

Tables are a common way of presenting information. We use tables to display key information, usually numbers. Tables can form a summary of information, or they may be a starting point for a discussion.

Tables can look quite formidable when a lot of information is presented all at once and finding your way around one can be difficult.

So how do you interpret a table?

The Sciences Good Study Guide (Northedge et al., 1997) advises that you should ask yourself these ques
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1.1.6 Multiple operations

Sometimes you may wish to perform several operations in one step (for example: 35 / 10−3).

When you enter a number of operations one after the other, before clicking the '=key', the Windows calculator will evaluate the combination of operations in a particular order. This corresponds to the order used for any calculation that involves several arithmetic operations. Multiplication and division are evaluated first, then addition and subtraction.

In the example given above, this wo
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1.1.4 Simple arithmetic operations

To perform a simple arithmetic calculation:

  1. Enter the first number in the calculation (for example '123') using one of the following methods:

    • Using your computer keyboard's numeric keypad, which (if you have one) is on the right of your computer keyboard. Check to see whether the Num Lock indicator light is on and if it is not press the NUM LOCK key.

    • Using your computer keyboard's numeric key
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1.1.3 Keeping the calculator running on your Windows desktop

When performing a number of calculations whilst using other programs on your computer, it's convenient to keep the calculator running in the background.

To do this click on the 'Minimise' button of the calculator's window (the leftmost button in the top right corner). When you are ready to start working with the calculator again, click the 'Calculator' button in the Windows taskbar. (The taskbar is usually at the bottom of the screen; it contains the 'Start' button.)


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6.3 Referencing

Once you start using the web for study and research, you'll see how convenient it is to find information that you can use for course notes, essays or reports.

One of the most important of all your study skills is the ability to summarise information from other sources in your own words.

Whenever you make use of any information that has been created by someone else, the author and the source must be clearly identified and acknowledged through the use of proper referencing. Providin
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2.2.1 Reading diagrams: questioning what they say

With each of these diagrams, and with others you are trying to read, there are several questions you can ask.

  • What is the purpose of the diagram, that is, what is it aiming to tell us?

  • How is the information imparted?

  • What assumptions does it make about our ability to understand it?

  • What are we expected to remember?

  • How successful is it in doing all
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5.1.1 Art History

Haggar, R.G. (ed.) (1962) A Dictionary of Art Terms, London, Oldbourne.

Hall, J. (ed.) (1979) Hall's Dictionary of Subjects and Symbols in Art, London, John Murray.


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3.7.2 Language

Your language should be direct rather than fancy. Don't strive for effect. You should always go for short and simple sentences where you can – especially when you are building up a basic essay-writing style. You can play with more elaborate words and grammatical structures later, when you have established a secure basic technique. Don't beat about the bush; pitch straight in to answering the essay question in a direct, purposeful way.


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3.7.1 Technical considerations

Handwriting

Nowadays most people use a word processing package to write essays while some people may use a typewriter. However, if you don't have access to either of these you will need to hand-write your essay. Should this be the case, the ease of reading depends on the quality of your handwriting . It is only fair to your tutor to try to make your writing as legible as possible. This will take time and care. But when you have spent a long time putting an essay together,
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3.6 Taking an objective, analytical stance

One of the things I said an essay should be is ‘objective’. What does that mean? Being objective about something means standing back from it and looking at it coolly. It means focusing your attention on the ‘object’, on what you are discussing, and not on yourself and your own (subjective) feelings about it. Your ideas should be able to survive detailed inspection by other people who are not emotionally committed to them.

An essay should argue by force of reason, not emot
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1.3.1 Reading guide

There is a lot to think about in this course, particularly if you work carefully through all the examples and activities, which are mainly in section 2. I suggest you take the course in five stages:

  1. Up to the end of section 2.1

  2. Section 2.2

  3. Section 2.3

  4. Sections 2.4 and 2.5

  5. Section 2.6

  6. Sections 3 and 4.

Alternatively, simply stop reading closely when you feel you h
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1.1 Why write?

Of all aspects of studying, writing is probably the most challenging. That is because when you write down an account of your ideas for other people to read you have to explain yourself particularly carefully. You can't make the mental leaps you do when you are in conversation with others or thinking about something for yourself. To make your meaning clear, using only words on a page, you have to work out exactly what you think about the subject. You come to understand it for yourself i
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Acknowledgements

The content acknowledged below is Proprietary (see terms and conditions) and is used under licence.

Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following sources for permission to reproduce material in this supplement:

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Learning outcomes

After studying this course, you should be able to:

  • identify some of the important characteristics of maps in relation to their value to social science

  • recognise and give examples of how maps can influence our “view” of the world

  • describe the relationship between data and space as represented on a map.


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3.5.2 Pre-post test studies

Another method for evaluating the effectiveness of a therapy is to use a pre-post test design. This is where a group of people is assessed before and after a programme of intervention. Ideally, these people would be matched to a control group who are also tested twice, but do not receive the same (or any) intervention during that period. However, as with randomised controlled trials, there are ethical issues if it becomes clear that the intervention is having an adverse affect on the e
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3.5.1 Expectancy versus effect

One of the biggest problems in evaluating psychological interventions is that even if a treatment appears to ‘work’ it can still be difficult to ascertain whether the results were a consequence of the treatment itself. The improvement might have occurred anyway, with or without the treatment, or the apparent benefits might have resulted from other factors, such as being able to discuss the difficulties with a professional who understands. Any treatment can lead to expectations of i
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1.5 Defining dyslexia

The ongoing debate about dyslexia is reflected in the different approaches that have been taken to formally define it. Clearly this impacts on how dyslexia is defined in practice. The next three sections summarise how definitions of dyslexia have changed as our knowledge has increased. In short, there have been three main approaches to defining dyslexia: definition by exclusion, discrepancy definitions and the identification of positive indicators.


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1.1 Introduction

You may have noticed that we often discuss people with the assumption that there is a ‘normal’ pattern of behaviour, which some people do not conform to, while the rest do. This idea of ‘normality’ is implicitly subscribed to in many areas of psychology. We theorise about ‘normal development’, ‘normal memory functioning’, ‘typical perceptual experiences’, ‘gender appropriate behaviour’, and refer more explicitly to examples of unusual psychological functioning as being
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Learning outcomes

After studying this course, you should be able to:

  • understand how to start SPSS

  • define a variety of statistical variables

  • enter basic data into SPSS

  • carry out a statistical analysis that can test hypotheses.


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