Pages 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 251 252 253 254 255 256 257 258 259 260 261 262 263 264 265 266 267 268 269 270 271 272 273 274 275 276 277 278 279 280 281 282 283 284 285 286 287 288 289 290 291 292 293 294 295 296 297 298 299 300 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 315 316 317 318 319 320 321 322 323 324 325 326 327 328 329 330 331 332 333 334 335 336 337 338 339 340 341 342 343 344 345 346 347 348 349 350 351 352 353 354 355 356 357 358 359 360 361 362 363 364 365 366 367 368 369 370 371 372 373 374 375 376 377 378 379 380 381 382 383 384 385 386 387 388 389 390 391 392 393 394 395 396 397 398 399 400 401 402 403 404 405 406 407 408 409 410 411 412 413 414 415 416 417 418 419 420 421 422 423 424 425 426 427 428 429 430 431 432 433 434 435 436 437 438 439 440 441 442 443 444 445 446 447 448 449 450 451 452 453 454 455 456 457 458 459 460 461 462 463 464 465 466 467 468 469 470 471 472 473 474 475 476 477 478 479 480 481 482 483 484 485 486 487 488 489 490 491 492 493 494 495 496 497 498 499 500 501 502 503 504 505 506 507 508 509 510 511 512 513 514 515 516 517 518 519 520 521 522 523 524 525 526 527 528 529 530 531 532 533 534 535 536 537 538 539 540 541 542 543 544 545 546 547 548 549 550 551 552 553 554 555 556 557 558 559 560 561 562 563 564 565 566 567 568 569 570 571 572 573 574 575 576 577 578 579 580 581 582 583 584 585 586 587 588 589 590 591 592 593 594 595 596 597 598 599 600 601 602 603 604 605 606 607 608 609 610 611 612 613 614 615 616 617 618 619 620 621 622 623 624 625 626 627 628 629 630 631 632 633 634 635 636 637 638 639 640 641 642 643 644 645 646 647 648 649 650 651 652 653 654 655 656 657 658 659 660 661 662 663 664 665 666 667 668 669 670 671 672 673 674 675 676 677 678 679 680 681 682 683 684 685 686 687 688 689 690 691 692 693 694 695 696 697 698 699 700 701 702 703 704 705 706 707 708 709 710 711 712 713 714 715 716 717 718 719 720 721 722 723 724 725 726 727 728 729 730 731 732 733 734 735 736 737 738 739 740 741 742 743 744 745 746 747 748 749 750 751 752 753 754 755 756 757 758 759 760 761 762 763 764 765 766 767 768 769 770 771 772 773 774 775 776 777 778 779 780 781 782 783 784 785 786 787 788 789 790 791 792 793 794 795 796 797 798 799 800 801 802 803 804 805 806 807 808 809 810 811 812 813 814 815 816 817 818 819 820 821 822 823 824 825 826 827 828 829 830 831 832 833 834 835 836 837 838 839 840 841 842 843 844 845 846 847 848 849 850 851 852 853 854 855 856 857 858 859 860 861 862 863 864 865 866 867 868 869 870 871 872 873 874 875 876 877 878 879 880 881 882 883 884 885 886 887 888 889 890 891 892 893 894 895 896 897 898 899 900 901 902 903 904 905 906 907 908 909 910 911 912 913 914 915 916 917 918 919 920 921 922 923 924 925 926 927 928 929 930 931 932 933 934 935 936 937 938 939 940 941 942 943 944 945 946 947 948 949 950 951 952 953 954 955 956 957 958 959 960 961 962 963 964 965 966 967 968 969 970 971 972 973 974 975 976 977 978 979 980 981 982 983 984 985 986 987 988 989 19768 result(s) returned

6.6 A few final thoughts

This final section has concentrated on the heart, the lungs and the blood – the body's cardio-respiratory system. We saw briefly how the body takes oxygen in through the lungs, and discussed the importance of this for athletes in various sports. To understand the role of oxygen in the body and its importance to athletes, we had to draw on information that we had discussed in earlier sections about the way oxygen is carried in the blood and the way that the heart pumps blood to different par
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

6.2 The body, the lungs and oxygen

The figure shows a simple image of how the lungs absorb oxygen from the air.

Figure 11
Figu
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

6.1 Introduction

We have learnt that part of the reason the heart pumps blood around is to make sure that the body gets a fresh supply of oxygen. So in the same way that our hearts need to keep beating, we need to keep breathing oxygen into our lungs to survive. But what is the function of oxygen? Why does our body need oxygen, and what does it do with it once we have breathed it in? These are some of the questions that we will examine in first part of this section.

In the second part of this section, w
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

5.3 Blood vessels: veins, arteries and capillaries

The tubes that carry blood around the body can be loosely divided into two types, arteries and veins. Arteries are the tubes that take blood away from the heart. They tend to be quite large, at least a few millimetres in diameter. Veins are the tubes that carry the blood back to the heart and these are usually narrower than the arteries.


Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

5.1 Introduction

Elite athletes are aware of the importance of heart performance and blood flow and many have specific training programmes to increase the strength and efficiency of the heart. This is not, however, just something that impacts on elite athletes. Even those of us engaged in sport at an amateur level or just for recreation will have experienced the effect of sport on the heart. After intense physical activity our heart pounds and possibly our head pounds too from the blood that is being pumped t
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

2.2.3 Elizabeth Belk

Figure 4
Elizabeth Belk

Elizabeth Belk was living in Hamilton, South
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

8 Comment on the audio clips

In the cases of John and Danny, few, if any, of needs were being satisfied. Both were unemployed and, despite some assistance from Social Security, neither was economically secure. Neither of them had protective housing. Both were reliant on public toilets for clean water and, by and large, on charity to obtain nutritious food. Neither had ready access to appropriate health care, and both relied on the Accident and Emergency department at the hospital for medical treatment. John certainly did
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

1 The Swansea Cyrenians

In this course, you will hear from four people who have been helped by a secular voluntary organisation offering support and assistance to the homeless.

The Swansea Cyrenians is one of several organisations that are in touch with homeless people in Swansea. Since 1973, it has been helping some of the most vulnerable people in society, including those who have suffered from homelessness. At the time of the recordings, in 1999, the organisation was running a number of schemes to he
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

4.2 People knowledge

Stacey (1994) has made a passionate plea to understand the ‘power of lay knowledge’ which she prefers to call ‘people knowledge’. Stacey claims that two fundamental assumptions underline the importance of listening to lay voices. One is that all people are of equal worth and so their views should be heard. The other is that people are health producers as much as they are health consumers. She maintains that patients do a great deal of hard work, whether it is direct as with labouring
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

3.4 Health and children

So far, all the studies we have discussed have been based on adults. Health viewed through children's eyes is receiving attention, mainly in order to be able to target health promotion messages. Bendelow and Pridmore (1998) interviewed 100 nine and 10-year-olds in three primary schools in urban and rural areas of south-west England. As well as having discussions with the children, they asked the children to draw pictures to convey their views. Their results are quoted in Box 2.


Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

3.1 Health and low income

Health is a very personal matter, but people's health is very much situated in their life experiences and so their perceptions of health are likely to reflect their social situation.

Bostock (1998), a health researcher, interviewed mothers who were managing on low incomes to find out about their perceptions of their health. She was struck by the difference between her respondents' self-assessed health status compared to that found by the British Household Panel Survey (BHPS) which relat
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

3.1 Frequency

Frequency refers to how often or how frequently someone should exercise. To improve aerobic fitness, the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) recommends an exercise frequency of three days per week of vigorous exercise or five days of moderate exercise for healthy adults (Garber et al., 2011). The terms ‘vigorous’ and ‘moderate’ will be defined in the next section.

A frequency of 3–5 days per week using a combination of moderate and vigorous exercise is also recommended.
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2017 The Open University

2 Principles of training

When designing training sessions or programmes, it is important to consider the principles of training which include the principles of overload, progression, specificity, individual response and reversibility. These principles apply to all components of fitness, not just aerobic fitness,

Overload

In order to increase our fitness, we need to ‘overload’ our body systems. For examp
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2017 The Open University

Learning outcomes

After studying this course, you should be able to:

  • apply the principles of training to aerobic fitness development

  • consider the appropriate frequency, intensity, time/duration and type of exercise to develop aerobic fitness.


Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2017 The Open University

3.3.1 A conflict of interest

One of the difficulties of the involvement of drug companies in the mental health field is that it produces a conflict of interest. To put it crudely, drug companies rely on a continuing supply of patients to keep them in business. This is not always congruent with people's best interests, as you will see below. Although mental health services are intended to help people experiencing mental distress, they also have other driving forces. The market economy model of provision has encouraged the
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

1.1 Introduction

This extract looks at what we are calling ‘boundaries of explanation’. It tackles key issues such as:

  • What are mental health and distress – and who decides?

  • What are the views of people who have acquired a label of ‘mental illness’?

  • What are the views of those who determine – and patrol – the boundary between mental distress and ‘normality’?

The extract looks at language and terminology an
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

3.20 Key ethical issues for CAM practitioners: an effective complaints mechanism

Effective relationships require strong communication skills. A good therapeutic relationship allows users the space and security to air their dissatisfaction without recourse to an external body. However, not all users enjoy such open relationships with their practitioners and may prefer to end the relationship than voice a complaint. This is why it is crucial for professional bodies to have accessible and user-centred complaints mechanisms in place. Complaints panels must include a significa
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2015 The Open University

3.19 Key ethical issues for CAM practitioners: professional etiquette and whistleblowing

In the past, professional bodies cautioned their members against disparaging other members of the same profession in front of a user. In the UK many codes of ethics still discuss professional etiquette from the perspective of safeguarding the interests of the practitioner rather than the user. Sensitivity is required when treating a user who is dissatisfied with a previous practitioner, but this should not prevent a practitioner being critical of someone else's obviously unacceptable treatmen
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2015 The Open University

3.11 Key ethical issues for CAM practitioners

Although CAM practitioners’ duties may vary in nature from other health professionals’ duties, the types of ethical concern remain broadly similar. The rest of this extract considers the key ethical areas underpinning standards of best practice in CAM. Although CAM practice varies dramatically in scope, all the issues listed in Author(s): The Open University

3.4.3 Respecting autonomy is the foremost ethical principle in health care

Some commentators believe the pendulum has swung so far in favour of respecting autonomy that it leaves little scope for users to be passive recipients of healing. The desire to make each user an active participant in their own healing process can make it hard, or even impossible, for a user to refuse to engage in active decision making, and leave the decision to the benevolent practitioner. In this case, the user may waive his or her rights, by choosing not to be kept informed about changes
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2015 The Open University

Pages 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 251 252 253 254 255 256 257 258 259 260 261 262 263 264 265 266 267 268 269 270 271 272 273 274 275 276 277 278 279 280 281 282 283 284 285 286 287 288 289 290 291 292 293 294 295 296 297 298 299 300 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 315 316 317 318 319 320 321 322 323 324 325 326 327 328 329 330 331 332 333 334 335 336 337 338 339 340 341 342 343 344 345 346 347 348 349 350 351 352 353 354 355 356 357 358 359 360 361 362 363 364 365 366 367 368 369 370 371 372 373 374 375 376 377 378 379 380 381 382 383 384 385 386 387 388 389 390 391 392 393 394 395 396 397 398 399 400 401 402 403 404 405 406 407 408 409 410 411 412 413 414 415 416 417 418 419 420 421 422 423 424 425 426 427 428 429 430 431 432 433 434 435 436 437 438 439 440 441 442 443 444 445 446 447 448 449 450 451 452 453 454 455 456 457 458 459 460 461 462 463 464 465 466 467 468 469 470 471 472 473 474 475 476 477 478 479 480 481 482 483 484 485 486 487 488 489 490 491 492 493 494 495 496 497 498 499 500 501 502 503 504 505 506 507 508 509 510 511 512 513 514 515 516 517 518 519 520 521 522 523 524 525 526 527 528 529 530 531 532 533 534 535 536 537 538 539 540 541 542 543 544 545 546 547 548 549 550 551 552 553 554 555 556 557 558 559 560 561 562 563 564 565 566 567 568 569 570 571 572 573 574 575 576 577 578 579 580 581 582 583 584 585 586 587 588 589 590 591 592 593 594 595 596 597 598 599 600 601 602 603 604 605 606 607 608 609 610 611 612 613 614 615 616 617 618 619 620 621 622 623 624 625 626 627 628 629 630 631 632 633 634 635 636 637 638 639 640 641 642 643 644 645 646 647 648 649 650 651 652 653 654 655 656 657 658 659 660 661 662 663 664 665 666 667 668 669 670 671 672 673 674 675 676 677 678 679 680 681 682 683 684 685 686 687 688 689 690 691 692 693 694 695 696 697 698 699 700 701 702 703 704 705 706 707 708 709 710 711 712 713 714 715 716 717 718 719 720 721 722 723 724 725 726 727 728 729 730 731 732 733 734 735 736 737 738 739 740 741 742 743 744 745 746 747 748 749 750 751 752 753 754 755 756 757 758 759 760 761 762 763 764 765 766 767 768 769 770 771 772 773 774 775 776 777 778 779 780 781 782 783 784 785 786 787 788 789 790 791 792 793 794 795 796 797 798 799 800 801 802 803 804 805 806 807 808 809 810 811 812 813 814 815 816 817 818 819 820 821 822 823 824 825 826 827 828 829 830 831 832 833 834 835 836 837 838 839 840 841 842 843 844 845 846 847 848 849 850 851 852 853 854 855 856 857 858 859 860 861 862 863 864 865 866 867 868 869 870 871 872 873 874 875 876 877 878 879 880 881 882 883 884 885 886 887 888 889 890 891 892 893 894 895 896 897 898 899 900 901 902 903 904 905 906 907 908 909 910 911 912 913 914 915 916 917 918 919 920 921 922 923 924 925 926 927 928 929 930 931 932 933 934 935 936 937 938 939 940 941 942 943 944 945 946 947 948 949 950 951 952 953 954 955 956 957 958 959 960 961 962 963 964 965 966 967 968 969 970 971 972 973 974 975 976 977 978 979 980 981 982 983 984 985 986 987 988 989