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3.5.1 Expectancy versus effect

One of the biggest problems in evaluating psychological interventions is that even if a treatment appears to ‘work’ it can still be difficult to ascertain whether the results were a consequence of the treatment itself. The improvement might have occurred anyway, with or without the treatment, or the apparent benefits might have resulted from other factors, such as being able to discuss the difficulties with a professional who understands. Any treatment can lead to expectations of i
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1.5 Defining dyslexia

The ongoing debate about dyslexia is reflected in the different approaches that have been taken to formally define it. Clearly this impacts on how dyslexia is defined in practice. The next three sections summarise how definitions of dyslexia have changed as our knowledge has increased. In short, there have been three main approaches to defining dyslexia: definition by exclusion, discrepancy definitions and the identification of positive indicators.


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1.1 Introduction

You may have noticed that we often discuss people with the assumption that there is a ‘normal’ pattern of behaviour, which some people do not conform to, while the rest do. This idea of ‘normality’ is implicitly subscribed to in many areas of psychology. We theorise about ‘normal development’, ‘normal memory functioning’, ‘typical perceptual experiences’, ‘gender appropriate behaviour’, and refer more explicitly to examples of unusual psychological functioning as being
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Learning outcomes

After studying this course, you should be able to:

  • understand how to start SPSS

  • define a variety of statistical variables

  • enter basic data into SPSS

  • carry out a statistical analysis that can test hypotheses.


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Conclusion

This free course provided an introduction to studying Education, Childhood & Youth qualifications. It took you through a series of exercises designed to develop your approach to study and learning at a distance and helped to improve your confidence as an independent learner.


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5 Plotlines – what's your story?

Planning is important not only to the success of a lesson but also to the final outcome. Without a clear idea of ‘what, who, why and how’, your project might lose the plot!

Storyboarding is an essential part of film-making. At this planning stage, it is important to examine your initial idea in detail.

  • What ideas do you want to communicate?

  • Who is your audience?

  • Why: what response do
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2 Starting to use DV

DV, therefore, is a learning and teaching tool that has a lot to offer and one we cannot afford to ignore. Increasingly, DV will become an essential part of the teacher's ‘toolbox’, but it is one whose use has to be planned, in order for it to be effective.

Click on the following link to view the BFI Evaluation Report; for background information click on BECTA DV Pilot Project.

This course aims to familiarise you with the techniques and concepts of DV and to help you consider
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References

Thomas, T. (1991) Film Score: The Art and Craft of Movie Music (Burbank, CA, Riverwood Press) p. 293.
Daubney, K. Max Steiner's Now, Voyager: A Film Score Guide (Westport, CT, Greenwood Press) p. 51
Marvin Hamlisch quote: extract from DE353/14, OU film no. 517, p. 6

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3. What does visualisation mean?

‘Imagery is a powerful force for perception and understanding. Being able to “see” something mentally is a common metaphor for understanding it. An image may be of some geometrical shape, or of a graph or diagram, or it may be some set of symbols or some procedure.

Visualising means summoning up a mental image of something – seeing it in your mind. Some people can actually close their eyes and “see” a p
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1. A powerful force for perception and understanding

‘Imagery is a powerful force for perception and understanding. Being able to “see” something mentally is a common metaphor for understanding it. An image may be of some geometrical shape, or of a graph or diagram, or it may be some set of symbols or some procedure.’

(Open University, 1988, p. 10)

This course uses the word visualisation synonymously with mental imagery. It happens as
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Keep on learning

Study another free course

There are more than 800 courses on OpenLearn for you to
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6.2.4 Europe

Finally, an area that is subject to much dispute and political discussion is the whole issue of working conditions and the role of the EU. As already mentioned, the background to this is the question of the European Social Chapter. The UK has opted out of this EU initiative, which has to do with establishing common rights and conditions for working environments across the EU member states. A controversial aspect of this concerns the EU's European Works Councils Directive (see www.dti.g
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6.2.2 Industrial relations

In addition to these two government departments dealing with working conditions, the UK system of industrial relations has the Advisory, Conciliation and Arbitration Service (ACAS), a semi-independent body that mainly deals with dispute resolution issues between workers and employers. At its website there is information on employment rights, time off, worker consultation, trade union representation, equality and discrimination, parents at work, pay, discipline and dismissal.

The
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6.1 ‘Non-citizenship’ to ‘social-citizenship’ and worker rights

We respect our masters, and are willing to work for our support, and that of our parents, but we want time for more rest, a little play, and to learn to read and write. We do not think it right that we should know nothing but work and suffering, from Monday morning to Saturday night, to make others rich. Do, good gentlemen, inquire carefully into our concern.

[Submission from Manchester's Factory Children Committe
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4 Status citizenship

All these organisational initiatives are deeply concerned with labour conditions and the notion of the ‘working citizen’. And their activities raise the issue of status citizenship and the role of legal sanctions. The forms of commitment by firms and their monitoring by the organisations just outlined are voluntary on the part of companies. One of the problems with the emphasis on acts citizenship in the debates about GCC is that the question of status citizenship is largely
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3 ‘Acts’ and ‘status’ citizenship

We aim at no less than a change in the political culture of this country both nationally and locally: for people to think of themselves as active citizens, willing, able and equipped to have an influence in public life.

Crick report, 1998

In the DfES document Making Sense of Citizenship: A CPD Handbook a distinction is drawn between acts citizenship and status cit
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4. Balloon debate

Another statement from a 14 year-old student:

‘I don't want to do art – it's rubbish’

In addressing such a straight dismissal it is naturally worth considering the student's prior learning experiences, aptitudes and influences. However, this perception nevertheless encodes a declaration of value, which is not fundamentally different to some of the earlier quotes explored. It is perhaps unsurprising that negative perceptions voiced by policy makers, government figures and tho
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Learning outcomes

After studying this course, you should be able to:

  • understand the underlying values and justifications of teaching art and art history within the school curriculum

  • understand developing strategies to explore and engage with some of the subject criticisms voiced

  • understand enhancing and supporting pupil engagement with and exploration of these issues

  • understand extending teaching approaches that incorporate some of these values and ide
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5 Developing ‘engaging’ lessons

Think of your students as fish, swimming around in the waters of the school. An engaging lesson gives you the bait with which to catch your fish. And once they are hooked on your bait, then misbehaving will hopefully be the last thing on their minds!

Engaging your students is important for a number of reasons. An exciting lesson can be used:

  • as a reward for previous good behaviour;

  • as a carrot for behaving well in the future;


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2 Lesson format

For some of our students, school can feel like a confusing and even frightening place. Those students who come from backgrounds where there is little structure need to be given a feeling of security if they are to work to the best of their ability. Finding ways to give a clear format to our lessons will give the students a ‘hook’ to hang on to when the demands of the academic environment are putting them under pressure.

There are various ways in which we can format our lessons to en
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