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4.2.9 European Community reports

Although European cases may appear in the reports considered above, there are two specialist reports relating to EU cases.

  • European Court Reports (ECR)

    These are the official reports produced by the European Court of Justice. As such, they are produced in all the official languages of the Community and consequently suffer from delay in reporting.

  • Common Market Law Reports (CMLR)

    These are unofficial reports published weekly i
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3.3 Spider silk

The presence of regions of helical and sheet-like structures within a protein will affect its properties in different ways: a particularly striking example of this is provided by spider silk.

Imagine a polymer that forms fibres stronger, by mass, than steel and can be processed from water at ambient temperature and low pressure. As a consequence of its biological origin, it is extremely environmentally friendly and totally recyclable. It may sound like science fiction, but this i
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2.4.1 Archaeological evidence

This feels in some ways like the most ‘real’ source – where you can almost touch the Classical world, and where you get a sense of what the Classical world looked like. Classical archaeology covers a wide range of areas: not just buildings like the Parthenon or the temples at Paestum, but also cities, landscapes, graves, coins, battlefields, everyday items, plant and animal remains, ancient rubbish and much else. Archaeology often throws up evidence where literature doesn't. People, aft
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1 What is accounting about?

Let's start with a question – we shall call questions ‘Activities’. For many of these activities you will need a pen and paper, or you can use the course Forum, to note down your own ideas. Once you have completed the Activity you should return to the text, read the comments that follow the activity, and then think again about your answer. Change it, if you like. Once you are happy that you have understood the comments and that your own answer is alright, you should continue to read the
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Acknowledgements

Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see terms and conditions), this content is made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 Licence

The material acknowledged below is Proprietary and used under licence (not subject to Creativ
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Keep on learning

Study another free course

There are more than 800 courses on OpenLearn for you to
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3.3 Liquidity

Borrowers prefer to have the use of funds for as long as possible, while investors generally prefer to be able to get their money back as soon as possible. A major function of the financial markets, and of the stock market in particular, is to reconcile these conflicting requirements. The stock market enables shareholders and bondholders to realise their investment independently of the company by selling their holdings to other investors. This is called the secondary capital market, to distin
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Introduction

This course considers four ways in which some social scientists have claimed that there might be a ‘new economy’ coming in to being: the switch from manufacturing to services, globalisation, new technology and flexible labour markets. The good and bad points of economic change, its benefits and costs, are discussed. For example, what does it mean for people trying desparately to balnace the urgent demands of work and life?

This OpenLearn course provides a sample of Level 1 study in
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6.8 Sharing behaviour between use cases

For each use case there may be more than one scenario. In the process of requirements elicitation and specification, you may find a certain amount of common behaviour in two or more of your use cases. You may even find that an existing component can provide part or all of that common or shared behaviour. Indeed, if you do find such an existing component, this is an example of reusing requirements which is discussed more fully in MRP.

You can record the shared behaviour in
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6.2 Actors

Iteration is a natural part of the modelling process. It does not matter whether you start by looking for the actors or the use cases. We have chosen to begin with the actors, since it is a way of expressing the system boundary implicitly and identifying the different views that need to be taken into account. In practice, you are likely to find that the actors are to be found in the roles that people play as employees in the problem domain, such as the hotel's receptionist or manager.

A
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5.1 More information about modelling techniques

The four remaining diagramming techniques are described in separate sections below, which you should now study:

Diagramming TechniqueSection
Use case modellingUse Cases and Activity Diagrams
Activity diagramsUse Cases and Activity Diagrams
Entity–r
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3.1 Making consistent models

It would be preferable to have a consistent way of representing the different models that one might want to construct. The notion of a modelling language allows the developer to make useful connections between different models. For the most part, models are represented diagrammatically. There are two aspects of a diagram-based modelling language that you should be aware of:

  • a set of rules that defines what symbols can be used on a particular type of di
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Conclusion

Relational database systems underpin the majority of the managed data storage in computer systems. In this course we have considered database development as an instance of the waterfall model of the software development life cycle. We have seen that the same activities are required to develop and maintain databases that meet user requirements.


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1.6.1 Realising the design

So far we have been concerned only with the specification of a logical schema. We now need our database to be created according to the definitions we have produced. For an implementation with a relational DBMS, this will involve the use of SQL to create tables and constraints that satisfy the logical schema description and the choice of appropriate storage schema (if the DBMS permits that level of control).

One way to achieve this is to write the appropriate SQL DDL statements into a f
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1.5 Design

Database design starts with a conceptual data model and produces a specification of a logical schema; this will usually determine the specific type of database system (network, relational, object-oriented) that is required, but not the detailed implementation of that design (which will depend on the operating environment for the database such as the specific DBMS available). The relational representation is still independent of any specific DBMS; it is another conceptual data model.

Our
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1.3 Requirements gathering

Here we are concerned only with the requirements that relate specifically to the data. Establishing requirements involves consultation with, and agreement among, all the users as to what persistent data they want to store along with an agreement as to the meaning and interpretation of the data elements. The data administrator plays a key role in this process as they overview the business, legal and ethical issues within the organisation that impact on the data requirements.

The data req
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Key skill assessment: Improving your own learning and performance
Learning new skills is what makes us human but can we improve how we go about learning new things in new situations? Learning how to learn can help you to understand what works for you and what doesn't when you set out to learn new skills, either for work, your education, training or everyday life. In this free course, Key skill assessment: Improving your own learning and performance, you will learn to recognise, use and adapt your skills confidently and effectively in different situations and
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An introduction to Open Educational Resources (OER)
In this free course, An introduction to Open Educational Resources (OER), you will look at some institutional OER initiatives. These will include MIT's open courseware, Carnegie Mellon's Open Learning Initiative and The Open University's OpenLearn. You will get a flavour of how different OER initiatives design and present the content for their audiences. This OpenLearn course will also give you the opportunity to find, discuss and redesign some OER material. You can choose your audience for t
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Extending and developing your thinking skills
Diagrams, mind-maps, tables, graphs, time lines, flow charts, sequence diagrams, decision trees: all can be used to organise thought. This free course, Extending and developing your thinking skills, will introduce you to a variety of thinking skills. Asking and answering questions is at the heart of high-quality thinking. Questions naturally arise from the desire to know and learn about things and may be the starting point for a journey of understanding.Author(s): Creator not set

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Talk the talk
This free course introduces the mechanics of effective, persuasive oral presentations, by giving you the opportunity to analyse examples and then create your own. Using resources such as TED Talk videos, you will see how experts deliver professional talks and famous speeches, observe what works, and identify how language connects ideas and keeps a listener engaged. First pub
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