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3.3 Managing conflict

Conflict can emerge when a project is thought to be absorbing scarce resources or shifting the balance of power.

The schedule for project meetings provides a framework for communication while the project is in progress. Meetings with team members on a one-to-one basis, in addition to group meetings, will help them to feel supported and could be an opportunity to provide coaching when necessary.


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Acknowledgements

The content acknowledged below is Proprietary (see terms and conditions) and is used under licence.

Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see terms and conditions), this content is made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 Licen
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4.2 Stakeholder analysis

Figure 3 illustrates the range of stakeholders who could have an interest in health-related community social marketing programmes.

The theories of reasoned action and planned behaviour

The extended Fishbein model, based on the theory of reasoned action, includes the following components to explain behaviour.

  1. Attitude to the behaviour comprising:

    • a. The strength of the expectancy (beliefs) that the act will be followed by a consequence.

    • b. The value of that consequence to the individual.

    This is the basic expectancy value approach. Returning to our previo
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8 Drawing up the implementation plan

Once the detailed planning and risk assessments have been carried out, you are ready to assemble your implementation plan. A typical implementation plan, including diagrams and charts where appropriate, will contain:

  • a description of the background to the project;

  • its goals and objectives in terms of intended outputs and/or outcomes;

  • the resource implications (budget, personnel – including any training requirements – a
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3.1 Barriers to planning

The planning stage of a project usually takes place before the activities start, but not always. In any case, planning always continues during the implementation of a project because there is always a need to change some aspects and to revise plans.

Activity 1

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3.7 Analysing and reporting the results

When planning what data to use in the evaluation it is helpful to consider how the data will be analysed. Usually, there are a lot of data, perhaps in several different forms. If you have set clear objectives, it should be possible to identify the data that are relevant to each issue. It is usual to follow the steps below:

  • consider numbers, for example how much has been achieved at what cost;

  • consider quality, whether appropriate and not
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3.4 Evaluation at the end of a project

Different types of evaluation may take place at the end of a project. A common one is determining the extent to which the project outcomes have been achieved. This is often done in a meeting of the sponsor, key stakeholders and project team leaders, and sometimes informed by reports from key perspectives. An evaluation of this nature may be the final stage of the project, and the main purpose might be to ensure that the project has met all of the contracted expectations and can be ‘signed o
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1.1 Formal handover

The outputs of a project should be defined at the planning stage, including any conditions that will be required for a smooth transfer. Each outcome should be formally handed over to the sponsor who should confirm their delivery (‘sign them off’) so that there is no dispute about whether outcomes have been completed.

A closure list is likely to have sections to include the following groups of tasks, but each project will have different features to consider. A list of suggested areas
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7.3 Risk and contingency planning

Risk in projects may be defined as ‘an event or situation … which can endanger all or part of the project’

(Nickson and Siddons, 1997).

Risk management is fundamental to project management and has an impact on estimates of time and effort required for the project. It is concerned with assessing the kinds of risk associated with trying to make something happen, for example the possibil
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3.3 Task breakdown chart

The task breakdown technique is a very logical approach to identifying the tasks involved in a project. Some people may find it suits them better than using mind maps; other people may find the techniques complement each other.

To do a task breakdown chart, first draw a box at the top of a page with the project title inside it. Then mentally identify the main elements that go to make up the project as shown below.


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3.2 Mind mapping

The term ‘Mind mapping’ was devised by Tony Buzan for the representation of ideas, notes, information, etc., in radial tree-diagrams – sometimes also called ‘spider diagrams’. These are now very widely used. Try a web search on ‘Buzan’, ‘mind map’ or ‘concept map’. Alternatively, you could try Compendium. This is open source software that allows you to create a variety of mind, concept or knowledge maps. For more information, please refer to our Author(s): The Open University

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Working with children and families
This album takes an extensive look at the ins-and-outs of family life and caring for children. It draws on interviews with a wide-ranging selection of professionals, from people who deal directly with children at nurseries or schools to those that help shape national policy, to throw light on national initiatives and schemes such as ChildLine, and explore family life from different perspectives and social levels. This material forms part of The Open University course K204 Working with children a
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Growing up with Disability
In todays world growing up is tough - making friends, fitting in, changing schools. And it's even harder for children with disabilities. This album looks at PLUS, an organisation working towards the inclusion of disabled children and young adults in social activities and organisations, encouraging friendships and fun. It looks at PLUS from the view of the children, the carers and the families. This material forms part of The Open University course KE312 Working together for children.Author(s): The OpenLearn team

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Critical social work practice
This series of tracks looks at social work practice around the world and compares attitudes and management techniques within the social work field. Material is taken from The Open University Course K315 Critical social work practice. The OpenLearn team.
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An Untimely Death on Passchendaele Ward
Everyone has their own perspective on mental health, especially those who have experienced it. 'An untimely death on Passchendaele Ward' is written and performed by members 'The Orphans of Beulah' - a theatre group consisting of mental health service users and survivors. It is a modern day farce focusing on life in a Mental Health Institution. A death on the the ward leads to a lot of questions being asked. There are nurses self-medicating, patients acting as nurses, commissioners turning a bl
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7.1 Overview

Scottish literature is defined as literature written in Scotland or by Scottish writers, but is there such a thing as a literary and cultural identity which is distinctively Scottish?

This section of the OpenLearn Scotland collection is designed to stimulate thinking on the relationship between writing and identity. Learners are introduced to the work of two enormously influential figures in Scottish literature and culture: Sorley MacLean and Jackie Kay, the contemporary Scottish poet a
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3.3 How others see us

The relative nature of poverty is an old theme in social science. Adam Smith, the eighteenth century writer who is often regarded as the founding father of economics, put it this way: ‘By necessaries I understand not only the commodities that are indispensably necessary for the support of life, but whatever the custom of the country renders it indecent for creditable people, even the lowest orders, to be without’ (Smith, 1776, quoted in Sen, 1981).

Ideas of what it is to be poor are
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