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6.1 Knowledge and society

If I have seen farther than others, it is because I was standing on the shoulders of giants.

Sir Isaac Newton (Letter to Robert Hooke, 1676)

At the foreground of this final part of the unit is one of its more important themes – that knowledge is something held, developed and perpetuated both by and in the context of communities, societies and cultures. Newton's declaration to Hooke (above
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5.2 Scientists as a community of practice

Science has been described as involving observation, description, categorisation, investigation, experimentation and formation of theoretical explanations for naturally occurring phenomena – activities performed by scientists using scientific methods.

Jacob Bronowski (1973) said, ‘That is the essence of science: ask an impertinent question, and you are on the way to a pertinent answer’ – an apt way to put it, as with science, we set off from a starting point of curiosity and inc
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4.2 Knowing mathematics

How much mathematics do you think you know? You may feel that you know quite a lot, or that you are ‘out of practice’ and have forgotten much of it; or perhaps you were never very secure in your mathematical knowledge and feel that you did not achieve complete understanding. Primary teachers are expected to have a confident knowledge of mathematics. You are not expected to reach such a level for this unit, but you do need to know a fair amount. All the mathematics that children go on to d
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4.1 From awareness to understanding

In this section the mathematical content is more obvious as we talk explicitly about what it means to know and to think in mathematics. We will also address your own personal knowledge in the subject.

Like any other activity, doing and learning mathematics involves:

  • using and adapting existing knowledge;

  • acquiring and constructing new knowledge through thinking and learning;

  • building up links that enable known t
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2.5 Communicating with language

It has been suggested that our ‘linguistic competence’ (Chomsky, 1965) consists simply of the ability to construct ‘well-formed sentences’. The sociolinguist Del Hymes (1979) considered this notion to be far too narrow, and proposed the term ‘communicative competence’ to account for speakers’ ability to use language appropriately. Communicative competence lets us know when to speak and when not to speak, how to take turns in conversations and how to start and end them, and how t
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2.2 Language and shopping

The concept of self-service has reduced the use of spoken language dramatically, and nowadays shopping transactions may involve no more than the exchange of a few words. However, uses of literacy in shopping are probably increasing, as the next Activity shows.

Activity 3: Shopping and literacy


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2.1 Language in everyday life

Language is an ever-present feature of human life. In the developed world in particular, we are surrounded by language. Radio and television provide a soundtrack to the lives of many people. Written language is part of everything from cereal packets and street signs, to relatively new technologies such as email and text messaging. If you were completely alone, far away from any other people or any kind of human contact, how long would it be before words came into your head, perhaps because of
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1.3 Language, mathematics and science in the unit

Because of the schooled culture we have grown up in, we are likely to recognise language, mathematics and science as distinct ‘ways of knowing’. The words ‘language’, ‘mathematics’ and ‘science’ probably prompted you to think first of the school curriculum, where they are often treated very separately from each other. One of the intentions of the unit is to explore and develop your understandings of these three subjects, which means that, inevitably, we will spend some time de
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1.2 What the unit is about

This unit is about the ways in which we come to know and make sense of the world, in particular how we do this using the media of language, mathematics and science.

There are many possible theoretical positions which can be taken towards early years curricula. Some people, for example, think of children as ‘empty vessels’ which can be ‘filled’ with knowledge that is transmitted to them by adults. This view has been associated with a behaviourist approach to teaching and l
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Nuevo vocabulario relacionado con el tono de un cuento

Actividad 22

En esta actividad podrá aprender nuevo vocabulario relacionado con el tono de un cuento y también identificará el tono de Apocalipsis.

Click 'view document' to open ‘Apocalipsis' de Marco Denevi


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Sesión 5 Lectura

En esta sesión va a leer unos poemas sobre un famoso artista. La poesía es una forma literaria que expresa ideas o sentimientos a través del ritmo, la armonía y la imagen. Está escrita en verso y utiliza la rima de manera más o menos libre.


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Distintos tipos de artesanía

Actividad 16

En esta actividad va a poder hablar de distintos tipos de artesanía.

1 Relacione las siguientes artesanías con los materiales que se utilizan para elaborarlas. ¡Ojo!, tenga en cuenta que varias artesanías pu
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El arte conceptual

Actividad 11

En esta actividad va a estudiar más a fondo el arte conceptual.

  1. Si usted sabe mucho sobre arte, haga el siguiente test, y luego compruebe sus respuestas leyendo el texto . Si prefier
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Varios estudiantes de Bellas Artes

Actividad 3

En esta actividad va a escuchar a varios estudiantes de Bellas Artes explicar lo que es para ellos el arte.

1 Como se trata de una conversación informal en la que los participantes se interrumpen mutuamente, emp
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8.6.1 Vocabulary strategies: classifying vocabulary according to grammatical class

Classify the following vocabulary by placing the words in the appropriate columns. If you are unsure of what the grammatical terms mean, go to the section ‘Parts of Speech’ in the dictionary.

Ponga las palabras en el recuadro correspondiente.

gimnasio • sacar • estar • dinero • func
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6.3 Actividad

Actividad 6.2

You decide to visit the sports centre to see the facilities for yourself. In the reception area, you overhear some conversations.

1 Listen to the audio clip and pick the areas metioned from the options below.

<
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5.2 Actividad

Actividad 5.1

1 Look at this photo of a bar in Havana, Cuba. What can you see? Below it is a list of objects, some of which appear in the photo. Tick the ones you can see. Look up the words you don’ t understand in the dictionary.


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1.2 Habitudes et projets

What do people normally do on 14 July? And this year, will they all enjoy the celebrations or will some of them have good reasons for not getting involved?

Activité 5 LE QUATORZE JUILLET 11:17–15:30

1 Regardez la séquence
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1.6.5 RSS

RSS (‘Really Simple Syndication’ or ‘Rich Site Summary’) newsfeeds supply headlines, links, and article summaries from various websites. By using RSS ‘feedreader’ software you can gather together a range of feeds and read them in one place: they come to you, rather than you having to go out and look for breaking news. The range of RSS feeds on offer is growing daily. There is probably a feed to cover all aspects of your life where you might need the latest information, and you may
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1.6.4 Blogs

The founder ofTechnorati  claims that the number of ‘blogs’ doubles every five months and that the creation rate is approaching two per second. One estimate I read in July 2010 put the number at 400 million ‘blogs’. Because these online diaries offer instant publishing opportunities, you potentially have access to a wealth of knowledge from commentators and experts (if they blog) in a wi
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