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4.8 Professional regulations

Certain professional bodies, such as The Solicitors Regulation Authority, have delegated authority under enabling legislation to regulate the conduct of their members. The Solicitors Regulation Authority has power to control the conduct of practising solicitors under the Solicitors Act 1974. The General Medical Council regulates the conduct of its members under the Medical Act of 1858. It has four main functions:

  • to keep up-to-date registers of qualif
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4.3 Types of delegated legislation

There are different types of delegated legislation:

  • Statutory Instruments

  • byelaws

  • Orders in Council

  • Court Rule committees

  • professional regulations.


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3,3,7 Royal Assent

You have already seen references to Royal Assent in this unit. The monarch formally assents to a Bill in order for it to pass into law. Royal Assent has never been withheld in recent times. Queen Anne was the last monarch to withhold a Royal Assent, when she blocked a Scottish Militia Bill in 1707. The Queen feared a Scottish militia might be turned against the monarchy.

Since the sixteenth century no monarch has actually signed a Bill themselves. Instead, the monarch signs what are kno
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3.3.4 Report stage

A Bill that has been amended in committee stage is reviewed by the House in which it started. The amendments will be debated in the House and accepted or rejected. Further amendments may also be added.


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Introduction

This unit is designed as an introduction to the academic study of the concept of rules, but will also serve as an introduction to a variety of different writing styles that are used in the academic world. It will challenge you to think about why some statements are rules and some are not, and what it is that distinguishes rules from habits and customs. It also looks at more formal rules and how such rules are applied and enforced. Rules shape our lives because they set out what we may and may
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1.2 Balancing the right to privacy and other rights

Article 10 of the European Convention on Human Rights protects freedom of expression. Section 12 of the Human Rights Act 1998 requires the courts in the UK to have particular regard to the importance of the right to freedom of expression. However, freedom of expression and the right to privacy frequently collide. This can be illustrated by reference to the American case of Anonsen v Donohue (1993). In this case a woman revealed on national television that her husband had raped and impr
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3.2 The evolution of the EU

The EU has grown out of a series of intergovernmental political initiatives which have been expressed in a number of treaties. These treaties form the building blocks that give authority and power to the institutions and law-making bodies of the EU. The process is evolutionary, as treaties are reviewed and amended to reflect both the changing membership and the vision of the EU.

The EU is founded on several treaties:

  1. The treaty that established
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2.4 The European Court of Human Rights

Common law and the court hierarchy, statutory interpretation and judicial precedent are all peculiar to the domestic English law. The European Court of Human Rights operates in a different way. The rights in the European Convention on Human Rights are stated in general terms and are interpreted according to international legal principles. For example, Article 31(1) of the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties states:

<
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6.5.1 Presumptions

When determining the meaning of particular words the courts will make certain presumptions about the law. If the statute clearly states the opposite, then a presumption will not apply and it is said that the presumption is rebutted. The main presumptions are:

  1. A presumption against change in the common law.

    It is assumed that the common law will apply unless Parliament has made it plain in the Act that the common law has been altered.

  2. <
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2.1 Using estimations

Approximations are most useful when it comes to making rough estimates – like adding up a bill quickly to see if it is about right or checking a calcul
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1.6 Significant figures for numbers less than one

You can use the same procedure for numbers less than one.

Example 4

In scientific work people deal with very small units of measurement. Suppose you read that the spacing between adjacent atoms in a solid was 0.000 002 456 84 metres. You could make the number more memorable by using two sign
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1.5.1 Try some yourself

1 Round 2098 765

  • (a) to 1 s.f.

  • (b) to 2 s.f.

  • (c) to 3 s.f.

  • (d) to 4 s.f.

An
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1.3.1: The mean and the median

This subsection looks at two ways of finding an ‘average’. The first produces the mean, which is what was originally meant by ‘average’, and what most people think of when they talk about an average. The second gives the median, which might more accurately be described as a ‘typical’ or middle value. They will be illustrated using the following batch of heights.

The heights in metres (measured to the nearest centimetre) of a group of seven people are as follows
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1.2.3: A typical shopping basket

This subsection discusses using a typical basket of goods to analyse price changes over time. However, what is meant by ‘typical’?

Think back to the last time you went shopping. What did you buy? The electric light bulbs that you have just stocked up on are unlikely to be in your shopping basket next week, whereas milk may well be there every week. And there may be items—a new toothbrush for example—that you buy from time to time, but not this week.

To monitor price change
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7 OpenMark quiz

Hopefully, thinking about how your solution to a mathematical problem might be marked, will help you to produce better solutions for yourself, as well as for somebody else. Now try the quiz  and see if there are any areas you need to work on.


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6.5 Solutions to ‘making a lawn’

Learning from the marking of the previous questions, write out a good solution to the following problem.

Example 18: Making a lawn

Suppose you have some friends who are planning to put a new lawn in their garden. The lawn is to be 12 m by 14 m and they have a choice of either laying turf or sow
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6.3 Solving the riddle of St Ives

Write out your own solution to the following problem.

Example 17: St Ives

As I was going to St Ives

I met a man with seven wives.

Each wife had seven sacks.

Each sack had seven cats.

Each cat had seven kits.

Kits,
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3.2.1 Try some yourself

1 You are planning to paint three rooms with total wall areas of 56, 38 and 40 square metres, using paint that comes in tins which claim to cover 15 square metres per tin. How many tins will you need for each room? And how many in total?

<
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3.2 Using formulas

Formulas are important because they describe general relationships, rather than specific numerical ones. For example, the tins of paint formula applies to every wall. To use such a formula you need to substitute specific values for the general terms, as the following examples show.

Example 8

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1.4.5 Graphical conversions: How would you go about drawing a graph to convert from one scale to the

First you need some data about corresponding temperatures on each scale. In the case of Celsius and Fahrenheit, there are two fixed points of reference: the freezing and boiling points of water. On the Celsius scale, the freezing point is defined to be 0°C; on the Fahrenheit scale, the freezing point is 32°F. So if you plot degrees Celsius on the horizontal axis and degrees Fahrenheit on the vertical axis of a graph, the freezing point of water is represented by a point with the coordinates
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