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1 Why is information security important?

This unit introduces you to information security and its management.

A succinct definition of information security might run as follows:

Information security is the collection of technologies, standards, policies and management practices that are applied to information to keep it secure.

But why is it important to secure information? And how should its security be managed? To s
Author(s): The Open University

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4.5 WiFi network structure

A WiFi network can operate in one of two different modes: ad hoc mode or infrastructure mode

In an ad hoc network, stations communicate with each other directly, without the need for any intermediary or central control. This means that when one WiFi device comes within range of another, a direct communication channel can be set up between them. This is known as peer-to-peer communication. Additional devices can join the network, all communicating with each o
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4.2 Representing data

But if all the data and computer instructions within a computer are represented by 1s and 0s, how can this limited set of conditions be used to represent, for instance, every letter of the alphabet that might be typed into a computer from a keyboard? Activity 4 showed that there are four possible combinations
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7.2 Difficulties in navigating e-commerce sites

People who are new to computing sometimes find the process of online ordering baffling and frustrating. They get ‘lost’ in the process – for example, by putting something into a virtual shopping cart and then remembering that there's something else they need to look for. So they return to the search engine or the catalogue and then can't find the cart. These kinds of commonly experienced difficulties can be addressed by good and adaptive site design, but still a disturbing proportion of
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Acknowledgements

The content acknowledged below is Proprietary (see terms and conditions) and is used under licence.

Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following sources for permission to reproduce material within this unit.

Figures

Figure 6 NanoElectronics Japan

Figure 30 The Cottingley Fairies © Science and Society Picture Library

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6.4 Pictures

It used to be thought that a photograph could provide proof of an event – someone could be caught red-handed by a photograph, as proof of their guilt. ‘The camera never lies’, it was said. If you have a digital camera and have been ‘touching up’ photographs on your home computer you will know that this is far from true now. It is easy to lie with a digital photograph.

The idea that the camera never lies has always been a myth, however. As far back as 1917 the photographs of th
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6.3 Authentication of information

When I watch TV news, listen to the radio or buy a newspaper I never think to question whether I really am watching ITV, listening to Radio Five Live or getting the Guardian. In each of these cases it is theoretically possible that they are not who they say they are, but the practicalities of performing the masquerade are so complicated that the possibility can be discarded.

With emails and websites it is a very different matter. Indeed, in recent months I have received several e
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2.2.4 Public services

In the UK, in many NHS trusts, patient records are easily shared between departments within a hospital. These electronic patient records may soon be transferable across the whole health service, so that medical staff can access them from any part of the NHS. In some places, especially remote rural areas, doctors may be able to make use of computer networks to make a diagnosis if they are unable to see the patient in person.

Passenger information is increasingly available via networked c
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8.1 Introduction

One type of data model is an entity–relationship data model.

Experience has shown that data can be best described by relationships between entities. An entity is anything of interest about which data is recorded, such as roads, weather stations, trucks and weather station readings in the IceBreaker project in the book MRP. In general, there will be many relationships (or associations) linking the entities. A trivial example is the fact that a given weather reading
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4.3 A commercial implementation

In order to conclude this section I shall describe a commercial implementation of an object bus. It has been developed by a company known as SoftWired Ltd and is known as iBus. It is based on TCP/IP rather than UDP. The facilities offered by the iBus API provide developers with the facilities to construct objects which can subscribe to channels and to transmit any Java object to a channel. The code for a transmitter is shown below; the import statements are not shown. In
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Making Mergers Less of a Crapshoot
Very human factors are at play in mergers and acquisitions. Paying attention to them can increase your chance of success.
Author(s): Manfred Kets de Vries, INSEAD Distinguished Clinic

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Rights not set

4.2.3 Choose the questions and order them

During your first read through the paper, put an asterisk or star sign (*) in pencil against the questions you think you could possibly answer. Then read through your starred questions and put an additional star against the ones that you prefer. Choose the questions with the highest star rating.


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3.6.5 Self-help groups - revising with others

There is a great deal to be said for working with another student, or group of students, when you are revising. Other students can help you keep the whole revision process in perspective, rather than letting it make you over-anxious. At another level, there is no reason why you shouldn't share marked assignments, revision tips and plans with members of a revision group. You may find that one of your group is good at devising a manageable revision timetable, and another can share some valuable
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3.6.4 Using a computer

Besides other things, a computer offers the opportunity to organise, reorganise, and delete material, without having to write everything out every time you make a change. It also allows you to make notes as you go along, file them easily, and add and update them in your revision period.

You may even find that one of your software packages supports a facility for making notes. You will certainly have a range of layout facilities and graphics to enhance your notes.

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2.2 Your motivation

Activity 2

Why did you decide to become a student and what do you hope to gain from your studies?

Think about this question for a few minutes and then note down your response.


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Introduction

This Unit is designed to take you on a journey of understanding. You will be introduced to a variety of thinking skills and ways of extending and developing your thinking. You will begin by looking at why thinking skills are important in education, and what kinds of skills are valued. You will then move on to some practical strategies and ideas for further activities and reading.


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5.7 Conclusion

We hope that you have enjoyed Learning to change. The unit has asked you to explore your own learning and how it can be used for personal development and change. We hope that you have found that you have a combination of knowledge, skills and qualities that you can take forward in ways that will help you feel fulfilled in whatever you decide to do and will make your life more interesting and enjoyable.

We also hope that you have begun to feel that in addition to being able to man
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5.1 Introduction

You have almost reached the end of Learning to change and we hope that you will continue to use learning to achieve change in your life. This section is an opportunity to reflect on what you have learned as a result of doing the unit. ‘Reflecting backwards’ is an important part of learning because it helps you to be clear about what you have learned. Looking back also enables you to hold on to what you have learned after the unit finishes. This means that you can ‘reflect
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7.3 Drafting essays

As you may remember from Activity 4, the main elements of an essay are:

  • the introduction

  • the main body

  • the conclusion.


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8.6.1 Monitor and critically reflect on your use of problem-solving skills

As you use problem-solving skills in your work, refer back to the outcomes you hope to achieve and the goals you have set yourself. Ask yourself questions such as:

  • am I on track to achieve my outcomes?

  • what difficulties in using problem-solving techniques have I experienced and what have I done about them?

  • how have the choices and decisions I made impacted on me and on others?

  • do I need to make any ch
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