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1.5.1 Agreeing who to be

So far I have focused on one-to-one interactions. Yet ‘defining a scene’ is often a group effort. Goffman says this involves teamwork, with all participants, in effect, agreeing to act and speak within an overall frame of reference. He suggests that it works like a theatrical play in which everyone has taken on a part within the scene. To play your part means setting aside all those aspects of yourself which are not relevant to your role. The scene works only because everyone plays their
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6.3 The role of oxygen in sports performance

The body uses oxygen in a chemical process that produces fuel for the muscles. You might think that the transfer of oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body is vitally important for all athletes. However, you might be surprised to hear that although this process is important in many sports, it doesn't matter very much at all in quite a few. The reason for this is fairly straightforward: the transfer of oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body takes time. In events that don't
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6.2 The body, the lungs and oxygen

The figure shows a simple image of how the lungs absorb oxygen from the air.

Figure 11
Figure 11 Air and blood flow

Air contains several differ
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6.1 Introduction

We have learnt that part of the reason the heart pumps blood around is to make sure that the body gets a fresh supply of oxygen. So in the same way that our hearts need to keep beating, we need to keep breathing oxygen into our lungs to survive. But what is the function of oxygen? Why does our body need oxygen, and what does it do with it once we have breathed it in? These are some of the questions that we will examine in first part of this section.

In the second part of this section, w
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4.1 Introduction

The heart is the engine of the human body – but what about it's specific function in athletes participating in sport? We have seen that athletes need to get oxygen and nutrients to different parts of their body quickly – this means they need an efficient cardiovascular system, this means having an efficient heart.

What do we mean by an efficient heart? We mean one that pumps a lot of blood with every beat and that can beat quickly for a long period of time. An athlete's heart differ
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3 Problems with quantification

One of the main problems with the medicalisation of death and dying is the idea that science has all the answers. Illness and dying carry the same degree of unpredictability and uncertainty as all everyday life events. So when service providers draw on medical knowledge and experience to offer some certainty and in one way to quantify the dying experience, it can be difficult to challenge. Indeed, there is a tension between wanting certainty and hoping for things to be different. Campaigner a
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Learning outcomes

By the end of this unit you should be able to:

  • give examples of how LETS work as a community development.


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4 Gaynor and Liz comment on Anne's situation

Activity 4

In this final clip, you will Gayor and Liz talk about their views on Anne's situation. Listen to their comments and add any additional points to the notes you began in the previous section.

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4.3 Understanding lay knowledge

Popay et al. (1998) are also concerned that lay knowledge be taken seriously to help us understand the causes of variations in health status found in different social groupings. It has been suggested that we need a ‘lay epidemiology’ which would study the experiences of individuals and their biographies within specific social situations. They argue that people express their views on health in narrative form which is, as they say, ‘antithetical to traditional models of cause and effect,
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Learning outcomes

By the end of this unit you should be able to:

  • distinguish between mental health and mental illness;

  • give examples of how community resource centres can benefit the well being of individuals and communities in terms of mental health.


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Summary

  1. The main acute effects of ethanol are on the nervous system, causing characteristic changes in behaviour and judgement. There are particular issues with regard to driving, with different countries setting various ‘safe’ limits for blood-ethanol concentration. Very high blood-ethanol concentrations can be fatal.

  2. Hangovers are unpleasant and are poorly understood. Various mechanisms have been proposed including direct effects of ethanol o
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1.2 Hangovers

‘Beer is the reason I get up every afternoon.’

In certain cultures, an evening of heavy drinking is a regular social activity and the ill-effects suffered the following morning are accepted as an inevitable part of life. The economic cost of alcohol-related absence is frequently caused by workers experiencing symptoms of ‘hangover’. This is the term used to describe the collection
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7.5.1 The statement of expectations

A social work degree places an increased emphasis on service users' perspectives. This was first outlined in the White Paper Modernising Social Services (DoH, 1998) that introduced legislation to set up the new qualification along with the regulatory and registration mechanisms discussed above within the devolved nations of the UK. This emphasis on the perspectives of service users is illustrated through the results of extensive consultation exercises carried out with them, their carer
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2.8 References for Extract 1

Banks, S. (2001) Ethics and Values in Social Work, 2nd edn, London, BASW/Macmillan.

British Association of Social Workers (BASW) (2002) Code of Ethics for Social Work, BASW,

Dalrymple, J. and Burke, B. (1995) Anti Oppressive Practice and the Law, Buckingham, Open University Press.

Howe, D. (1999) ‘Values in Social Work’ in Davies, M., Howe, D. and Kohli, R. Assessing Competence and
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Acknowledgements

The content acknowledged below is Proprietary (see terms and conditions) and is used under licence.

Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following sources for permission to reproduce material in this unit:

Text

Reading 1: Perkins, R. (1999) ‘Madness, distress and the language of inclusion, Openmind, Vol 98, Jul/Aug 1999, © 1999 Mind (National Association for Mental Health).

Reading 2: Rose, D (2001)
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2.4.2 Holism and ideas about the body

Reductionist medical approaches have been criticised for providing a fixed, mechanistic view of the body, which fails to capture the patient's experience. The power associated with biomedical diagnoses and expertise means that patients’ explanations for their illnesses are often overlooked or dismissed. Does holism, which seeks to treat the mind, body and spirit, fare any better in giving patients a sense of control or ownership of what their illness means? This question is often reframed i
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1.5.4 The 5 Ds

If you don’t use a system at all, then you could suffer from the effects of information overload:

  • losing important information

  • wasting time on trying to find things

  • ending up with piles of physical and virtual stuff everywhere

One technique you might like to apply to your files (be they paper or electronic) is the 5Ds. Try applying these and see if you can reduce your information overload.


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1.5.1 Why is it important to be organised?

  • 87% of items that are filed into a filing cabinet are never looked at again. STANFORD UNIVERSITY

  • In 2010, the world’s digital information output was estimated to pass 1.2zettabytes – A zettabyte is a new term which equals a thousand billion gigabytes. University of California (Berkley)

  • A new blog is created every second TECHNORATI

  • 10% of salary costs are wasted as e
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Learning outcomes

By the end of this guide you should be able to:

  • conduct your own searches efficiently and effectively;

  • find references to material in bibliographic databases;

  • make efficient use of full text electronic journals services;

  • critically evaluate information from a variety of sources;

  • understand the importance of organising your own information;

  • identify some of the systems available;

  • describe ho
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References

Foley, P. (2008) ‘Introduction’ in Collins, J. and Foley, P. (eds) Promoting Children's Wellbeing: Policy and Practice, Bristol, The Policy Press in association with The Open University.
Maynard, T. (2007) ‘Encounters with Forest School and Foucault: A Risky Business?’ Education 3–13, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 379–391.

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