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4.1 Overview

For a small country whose population has never been much in excess of five million, Scotland seems to have more than its fair share of famous men and women. Native Scots or those descended directly from them have been the recipients of some 11 per cent of all the Nobel Prizes that have been awarded.

In this section of the OpenLearn Scotland collection, we look in detail at the lives and work of four great Scots: John Napier, James Clerk Maxwell, Robert Owen and David Hume.

 


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3.3.1 Summary

  • Claims about who is poor are rooted in shared and contested ideas about the basic necessities of life.

  • The experience of poverty is both relative and relational. It is defined by what people have, and what they can do, relative to the opportunities of others.

  • Poverty carries derogatory meanings, so it does not easily provide a basis for collective identity.


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4.2 The industry life cycle

The comparison between the automobile industry and the PC industry makes sense only if we concentrate on similar periods in their evolution. We will concentrate here on the ‘early’ development of both industries, in what will be called the ‘introductory’ and ‘early growth’ phases in their life cycles. This is the period running from 1900 to 1930 in the automobile industry and from 1975 to 2000 in the PC industry. The automobile industry refers here to all firms producing cars and
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4.1 Introduction

As you have now seen, the concept of the ‘new economy’ has inspired a number of studies that compare the effect that new technologies have had on economy-wide productivity in previous eras with the effect that IT has – or has not yet – had in the current era. I shall now ask another question, still along the lines of ‘what's new in the new economy?’, but this time from a more microeconomic perspective, which focuses on the individual firm and industry rather than on the whole econ
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1 Poverty in Scotland

Poverty in Scotland 2011 provides a detailed overview of poverty and anti-poverty policies in Scotland. It provides a comprehensive account of the state of poverty in Scotland, highlighting the main trends and the impact poverty has on people and places.

This course comprises a PDF document produced originally by Child Poverty Action Group, in association with Glasgow Caledonian University, The Open University and Poverty Alliance.

Poverty in Scotland, (250 pages, 789 KB)
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2.3 Activity 1: Flora Macdonald

temp – ground stewardess – office manager – accountant

Figure 1.4

6.1 London

London's population and economic size are those of a region. As such it contains various peripheries within itself. Further to this, there are some issues, mainly economic planning and transport, which are closely connected with the rest of south-east England. The Labour government introduced a Greater London Authority (Referendum) Bill in October 1997 and organised a referendum on 7 May 1998 in which 72 per cent voted (on a low turn-out of 33.5 per cent) in favour of establishing a Mayor and
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Introduction

Relational database systems underpin the majority of the managed data storage in computer systems. This course presents an overview of the development life cycle for a database system and highlights how the database development differs from traditional software development.

This OpenLearn course provides a sample of Level 3 study in Author(s): The Open University

Network security
Encryption of files and firewalls are just some of the security measures that can be used in security. This free course, Network security, which assumes you have a substantial knowledge of computing, helps to explain the intricacies of the continually changing area of network security by studying the main issues involved in achieving a reasonable degree of resilience against attacks. Author(s): Creator not set

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Systems thinking and practice
What is systems thinking and practice? The essence of systems thinking and practice is in 'seeing' the world in a particular way, because how you 'see' things affects the way you approach situations or undertake specific tasks. This free course will help you to learn about the problems of defining a system and meet some of the key concepts used in systems theory: boundary, environment, positive and negative feedback, etc. Author(s): Creator not set

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Internet of everything
The internet of everything (IoE) is the networked connection of people, process, data and things. As more people, data and things come online, we develop processes to harness the vast amounts of information being generated by all these connected people and things. The goal of this free course is to introduce you to fundamental concepts and technologies that enable the IoE and the internet of things. Author(s): Creator not set

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References

Coffman, K. G. and Odlyzko, A. (1998) ‘The size and growth rate of the Internet’, First Monday, Vol. 3, Issue 10, http://firstmonday.org
ITU-T 1–150 (1999) B-ISDN Asynchronous Transfer Mode Functional Characteristics, ITU-T.
ITU-T X.200 (1994) Open Systems Interconnection – Model and Notation, ITU-T. (Also known as ISO/IEC 7498–1.)

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5.3 Regaining meaning

Suppose for a minute that the numbers I presented above were generated by a scanner as it produced a bitmap of a photograph. Clearly, the machine on which they are stored will have to get the image back to us by means of a device that can render it into a form meaningful to the human eye – an output device. I shall shortly review such devices. However, there is still work to be done before the computer can pass digitally-encoded data to such a device. For a start it will need to have
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7.3.1 Finding the 2's complement

In Section 2.4 you saw how to find the 2's complement representation of any given positive or negative denary integer, but it is also useful to be able to find the additive inverse of a 2's complement integer without going into and out of denary. For instance, 1111 1100 (−4) is the additive inverse, or 2's complement, of 0000 0100 (+4), but how does one find the additive inverse without converting both binary integers to their denary equivalents?

The answer is that the additive inve
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2.2 The characteristics of text

Text has a number of technical advantages over other media.

  • Text files are small. Images, sound, animation and video all produce large computer files, even when compressed. These files can be slow to load from CD-ROM or to transmit via the Internet; this can reduce the usability of the UI. Text files are much smaller.

  • Text can be manipulated very easily. For example, it is possible to search for words. If you are visiting a
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7.4 Using flowcharts to describe a task (contd)

Now consider what happens when you are weighing, for example, flour on a set of scales. You slowly add more flour to the scalepan until you reach the desired weight. As you do this the display constantly changes, showing the weight increasing as you add more flour. To do this, the scales’ computer must repeatedly examine the input and update the display each time it does so. The flowcharts in figures Author(s): The Open University

2.3 Computer systems

So far, I have introduced the major components of a computer, namely a processor along with input and output devices, plus main and secondary memory. I now want to explore three of these components a little further, starting with input devices.

Input devices have to collect some information from outside the computer and present it to the computer as data which is in a form the processor can work with. (Strictly speaking, ‘data’ is the plural of the Latin word ‘datum’. But in the
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History as commemoration
Commemoration - remembering and marking your past - makes an important contribution to our sense of community. This free course, History as commemoration, considers ways in which written texts, memorials, letters and photographs can all serve to commemorate events, people and values we wish to remember from our past. First published on Wed, 19 Dec 2018 as
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Children and young people’s participation
Listening to children is a first step in the participation agenda, which is reasonably well established. By contrast, enabling children to share in decision making lags some way behind. This free course, Children and young people's participation, emphasises that the adoption of an integrated approach to participation by different sectors of the children's workforce is of crucial importance. Author(s): Creator not set

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Discovering Wales and Welsh: first steps
This free course, Discovering Wales and Welsh, introduces you to who the Welsh people are via a brief look at history and two significant figures, Owain Glyndŵr and Llywelyn the Last. You will also learn the basics of Welsh pronunciation and how to greet people in Welsh. First published on Mon, 07 Mar 2016 as Author(s): Creator not set

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