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Exploring sport coaching and psychology
This free course, Exploring sport coaching and psychology, investigates how scientific and management ideas contribute to success while also taking you on a journey through unique sporting case studies and insights that will change how you view and study sport. You will consider how the mind, the body, the environment and training techniques all contribute to optimum fitness.Author(s): Ben Oakley

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Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see http://www.open.ac.uk/conditions terms and conditions), this content is made available under a http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2

Method 1

First of all, do some of the relaxation exercises we have described above. Then imagine yourself in this calm state taking the exam. You feel purposeful and confident. You see yourself at a desk in the exam room environment. You feel entirely at home and attuned to that moment, working effectively and concentrating well.

Now practise visualising this positive, clear, realistic image over and over again.


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5.3 Technique 3: Visualisation

Creating calming pictures or images in your mind, or 'visualising', can really help you to relax.


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4.2.4 Plan your time

When planning to use the time available, you should:

  • make sure that you are answering the right number of questions

  • divide your time according to the weighting of the questions

  • write down the finishing time for each question

  • try to allow for 10 minutes checking time at the end.

Stick to your plan. Evidence indicates that two half-answered questions obtain more marks than one completed
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1.3.4 Stage 2: Find a way in

Bearing in mind your analysis of the overt purpose of the piece of writing, whether it is explicitly social science or art, politics, entertainment etc., try to establish its basic point, its most obvious message. What is the title or headline; is it clear and ‘factual’, does it refer to some previous debate or require some sort of previous knowledge? Are there sub-headings and can you get an idea of how the ‘story’ goes from them? Skim read the introduction and the conclusion. Can yo
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1.2.3 Stage 1: Preparation

Numbers and diagrams are highly abstract and condensed summaries of the world. They require a degree of mental effort to bridge the gap between them and the aspects of the ‘real’ world they stand for. Approach them slowly and with care, allowing yourself time to get the feel of what you are looking at. Don't assume you already know what you are looking at.


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1.2.2 Stages in reading numbers and diagrams

Having established roughly what we are looking at when we see a table of numbers or a diagram, how do we read it systematically? It may be best to think of this as a process with several stages.


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1.2.1 What evidence are we reading?

Although we live in a society where a huge amount of information is available in the form of numbers, some of us still feel a mental fog descend when we are asked to deal with them. This is because numerical information is information in a very condensed and abstract form. A number on its own means very little. You have to learn to read it. Numeracy (the ability to work with numbers) is a skill that we can learn. It is a very useful skill, because it allows us to understand very quickly the <
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1 The importance of evidence

The gathering, presentation and assessment of evidence are crucial and indeed inescapable parts of the practice of social science, hence the crucial role of evidence in the circuit of knowledge (see Figure 1).

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7.3 Internalizing and interrogating key ideas

In addition to revisiting your notes at different times throughout the year, you might also look for opportunities to discuss key ideas with someone else - either a fellow student or someone outside of The Open University who is interested in contemporary social science debates. This can provide a helpful stimulus to internalizing them. Debating issues with someone else may well help you to generate further questions and critical observations, all part of processing and interrogating m
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6.1 What are aims and objectives/outcomes?

It is best to start to settle on the aims and objectives/outcomes (these terms are variously used around the world but are largely interchangeable) of your free course as soon as possible. You looked at the intended learning outcomes of some courses in Section 1. The difference between aims and objectives is that the aim is the general statement of what you hope the course will achieve, usually expressed in terms of what you will be presenting in the course; the objectives are what you intend
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Round 1: Images

Identify the Creative Commons licences

Question 1


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1.1.2 Questions in the perfect tense

Grammar Point 2 – Asking questions in the perfect tense

When asking questions in the perfect tense, structures follow the same pattern as seen earlier for the present tense (‘Asking questions’ in 1.3 Partir ou pas?).

1 Verb (avoir/être) + subject + past participle (formal French)

  • Avez-vous vécu longtemps aux États-Unis?

  • Did you live/have you lived in the States for a long time?

  • <
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4.8 Gender and difference

The discussion above referred to some of the stereotypes about the ways in which men and women supposedly communicate and interact with each other. For example, there is a view that in meetings men tend to talk in a supposedly rational way, while women's talk is associated more with feelings and emotions. It was also suggested that male workers are more likely to be intimidating or overwhelming in their relationships with service users and, by implication, that female workers might be less in
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3.10 Working with difference

If ‘racial’ or ethnic differences are produced as part of a process that ‘racialises’ certain groups as ‘other’, how should services respond to the issue of difference? What practical steps can service providers take to ensure all members of the population, whatever their assumed ethnicity, have equal access to services and can participate fully?

Lena Robinson is a psychologist and social work educator who has written extensively on issues of cross-cultural communication for
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2.7.4 Identities are contextual and interactional

Different identities assume greater or less importance, and play different roles, in different contexts and settings, and in interactions with different people. Different aspects of people’s identity may come to the fore in the workplace and in the home, for example, while people might emphasise different aspects of themselves to different people (and different people may see different identities when they meet them).


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2.3.1 An essentialist perspective

One way of understanding apparent differences in people’s behaviour and needs is to account for them as a direct result of their membership of a particular social group or category. For example, it might be suggested that a patient expresses herself in a very physical way because she is of African-Caribbean origin, and therefore because of certain innate biological or psychological attributes shared by all members of that ethnic group. Or it might be argued that a male manager behaves aggre
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Acknowledgements

Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following sources for permission to reproduce material in this course:

Course image: Ben Grey in Flickr made available under Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 2.0 Licence.

The content acknowledged below is Proprieta
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1.1 Introduction

Historically, one of the most significant changes over the past hundred years has been the move away from large families living and remaining in one community to smaller family units that are required, through the economic necessity of employment opportunities, to be as mobile as possible. Extended family networks are often weaker: in many instances parents are unable to call on the support of children's grandparents, aunts and uncles, and for some people parenting can be a very isolating and
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1.9 Conclusion

In this course you have seen the importance of the shared meanings that we construct together – how they enable us to act collectively within social situations. In particular, you have explored Goffman’s ideas about how those meanings are constructed through:

  • the way we present ourselves within social situations

  • the way we respond to other people’s presentation of themselves and help to shore up their performances.


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