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1 Playing roles together

Care relationships are seldom just a matter of ‘doing what come naturally’. For one thing, you may be caring for, or being cared for, by someone you would not otherwise get on with. A care relationship has to adapt to circumstances: it may be brief, as in an acute hospital ward, or it may be very long lasting; it may be flexible according to need or it may involve a high degree of regularity. It is a distinctive relationship with unique elements. Some of the things you and the other perso
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3 Anne's experiences

Figure 1
Anne

Anne has arthritis and depression. She is a retired soc
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2.1.1 Ian Traenor

Figure 1
Ian Traenor

Ian Traenor used to be a former employee of Scot
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8 Comment on the audio clips

In the cases of John and Danny, few, if any, of needs were being satisfied. Both were unemployed and, despite some assistance from Social Security, neither was economically secure. Neither of them had protective housing. Both were reliant on public toilets for clean water and, by and large, on charity to obtain nutritious food. Neither had ready access to appropriate health care, and both relied on the Accident and Emergency department at the hospital for medical treatment. John certainly did
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Acknowledgements

Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see terms and conditions), this content is made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 Licence.

The material acknowledged below is Proprietary and used under licence (not subject
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1.2.1 Boundaries and terminology

In another context Shakespeare asked, ‘What's in a name?’, and suggested by way of an answer that a rose may smell as sweet whatever it is called. In the context of social boundaries, however, the language used is actually very important in determining ‘who's in’ and ‘who's out’.

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Learning outcomes

After studying this course, you should be able to:

  • understand the complexity and dilemmas of diverse perspectives in the field of mental health and distress

  • undestand the importance of service users/'survivors' experiences and perspectives

  • understand how mental health issues affect everyone

  • understand the range of risks faced by service users/'survivors' in their everyday lives.


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6.3 (b) Switching to renewable energy sources

The use of renewable energy usually involves environmental impacts of some kind, but these are normally lower than those of fossil or nuclear sources.

Approaches (a) and (b) are essentially 'supply-side' measures – applied at the supply end of the long chain that leads from primary energy production to useful energy consumption.


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3.5 Hydroelectricity

Another energy source that has been harnessed by humanity for many centuries is the power of flowing water, which has been used for milling corn, pumping and driving machinery. During the twentieth century, its main use has been in the generation of hydroelectricity, and hydropower has grown to become one of the world's principal electricity sources. It currently provides some 2.3 per cent of world primary energy. However, the relative contribution of hydroelectric power (and of other electri
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2.1 What is energy?

'Energy is Eternal Delight'

William Blake, 1757–1827 (1994)

What do we mean by 'energy'? What does the concept of 'sustainability' entail? And what, for that matter, do we mean by the 'future' in this context?

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1.1.1 Where do we get our energy from?

The world's current energy systems have been built around the many advantages of fossil fuels, and we now depend overwhelmingly upon them. Concerns that supplies will 'run out' in the short-to-medium term have probably been exaggerated, thanks to the continued discovery of new reserves and the application of increasingly advanced exploration technologies. Nevertheless it remains the case that fossil fuel reserves are ultimately finite. In the long term they will eventually become depleted and
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3.1 (4A) Exploring dynamic relationships using sign graphs

Here is where things start getting really interesting in terms of system dynamics! So far, most of your modelling work has been pretty static, with a limited sense of how things change over time. In fact, the behaviour of complex systems is rarely stable. Sometimes change is exponential (e.g. the growth of the World Wide Web); sometimes systems crash and burn (e.g. extinction of populations); but often systems demonstrate repetitive patterns of behaviour (e.g. economic boom and bust cycles).
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2.5 Interdependence

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3.1 The steps to systems modelling

Systems modelling in practice usually involves six broad steps, within each of which there may be many subsidiary steps and some checking and revision. There is also likely to be iteration back to the earlier steps, as issues which call for changes in earlier decisions are uncovered.

Nevertheless, in my experience, the following six steps are likely to cover the basics.

  1. Identify the system of interest, in particular specify the system boundary a
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3.7 Systems methodologies for managing change

The use of systems concepts and models forms part of a process of investigation that is often described in the literature of systems, design and decision-making as a ‘methodology’, where a methodology is a process of enquiry, not a method to produce a predetermined result.

A systems methodology has the following characteristics.

  • It is, or it provides, the means for the investigator to draw up a plan for studying a situation. This encourages
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1.5 Increasing complication, complexity and risk: the underlying relationship

Figure 3 showed five commonly encountered problems of effecting different types of change. These are notionally located on a spectrum of change that ranges from no change at all, to complete revolution. The relationship suggested on the figure is that as the degree of change – represented
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