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1.3 Example 1 The Workcenter that didn't

Autodesk Inc. is the world's largest supplier of design and engineering software. It currently markets over thirty products but is most famous for its AutoCAD® two- and three-dimensional design and drafting software. The company is the market leader in this type of application, with over 4 million customers worldwide.

The Autodesk story began in 1982 with a group of programmers, centred on San Francisco, writing code for design software in their spare time. The group demonstrated a cob
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1.1 Introduction: what is the problem?

In late June and early July 2005 a row erupted concerning the operation of a major flagship of government social policy, the tax credit system. Introduced in 2003, it was designed to help those on low incomes and whose social circumstances prevented them from working full-time (Citizens Advice Bureau, 2005). The article reprinted in Box 1 indicates the extent of the political unrest with a system that left families relying on food parcels, and that has been variously described as being ‘in
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8.4.1 Open-loop control

Open-loop is the crudest way of controlling etch depth. It relies on ensuring that every aspect of the process that can affect the rate of progress of the etch is kept under tight control. This can add up to a sizeable list. Table 5 shows just some parameters that affect both wet and dry etching.

Whethe
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3.3 The scanning tunnelling microscope

The first scanning probe microscope, the scanning tunnelling microscope (STM), was invented by Heinrich Rohrer and Gerd Binnig in 1981, and used the quantum-mechanical effect of electron tunnelling (in which electrons ‘tunnel’ through an energy barrier that classical physics would suggest is too high to cross). In this instance, the energy barrier is the tendency of the metal of the probe tip to want to hang on to its electrons. In effect, as you try to remove an electron from the surface
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3.2 The principles of scanning probe microscopes

Scanning probe microscopy is a term that is applied to a set of imaging methods based on a common element: a fine stylus. In many ways, what scanning probe microscopes do is similar to what a gramophone does. A gramophone stylus scans a spiral groove (by travelling along it) on which information has been encoded in the form of undulations in the groove wall. Side-to-side and up-and-down movements of the stylus (which is mounted on one end of a rod supported and pivoted at its centre) as it fo
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5.8 Design problems

Table 7 summarises the many design problems of the piers uncovered by Mr Law and his team. We have already seen the numerous fractured lugs in the remains of the bridge, shown in Author(s): The Open University

1.1 Overview

Why are disasters important? They attract public attention because there is great loss of life, or because the event happened suddenly and quite unexpectedly, or because the accident occurred to a new project that had been regarded as completely safe. Certainly, the aspect of suddenness is one that features in many catastrophes, and indeed, it is this feature by which a catastrophe is defined.

Great disasters are always traumatic, especially for those who endure them and come through al
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4.5 Choosing to distinguish between complex situations and complex systems

Within some of the lineages of systems thinking and practice (Figure 24), the idea that system complexity is a property of what is observed about some ‘real world’ system, is known as classical or type 1 complexity. Exploring type 1 complexity, Russell Ackoff (1981, pp. 26–33) c
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4.1 Something different

Perhaps it will not surprise you if I say you may experience this unit as rather different to any you may have previously encountered. Like any course of study, you are likely to find surprising and interesting material in it but there are three specific ways this unit may surprise and even challenge you. These three ways are concerned with:

  1. The nature of systems thinking and systems practice;

  2. A style of learning where you have to tak
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11.1 Five steps to invention

I've looked at what motivates people and organisations to invent. I'll look more closely now at what's actually involved in inventing something.

Wherever invention occurs, whether with a lone inventor or in a creative team within an organisation, there seem to be common factors involved. There have been many attempts over the past 100 years to explain the creative process that occurs while people are attempting to solve problems. I'm going to combine ideas from two such models of the st
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Learning outcomes

After studying this course, you should be able to:

  • demonstrate a knowledge and understanding of the principles of user-centred designing

  • criticise some everyday products from a user's point of view

  • suggest and apply some appropriate methods for researching how users interact with products

  • apply comparison and evaluation skills, including constructive criticism of everyday products

  • apply observational skills in the conte
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References

Baird, R (1982) ‘Religious or non-religious: TM in American courts’, Journal of Dharma, vol.7, no.4, pp. 391–407.
Barker, E. (1989) New Religious Movements – A Practical Introduction, London, HMSO.

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1.2 The poor as patients

Patients' accounts of hospital life in the early modern period are notoriously thin on the ground, so historians have turned to other sources. These include hospital registers, which became more detailed and accurate in the eighteenth century, and the notebooks of medical students, who were increasingly attracted to hospitals for on-the-job training. Both types of document have been extensively used to throw light on the daily routine of patients and the treatment they received. Here I draw e
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Acknowledgements

This course was written by Dr Angus Calder

Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see terms and conditions), this content is made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 Licence

Grateful acknowledgement and thanks are mad
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7 Matching form and purpose

Now let us look at war memorials themselves. We have already agreed that their form takes a shape that we think appropriate. The question to ask is: Why do we think that one building, one shape, is more appropriate than another?

Exercise 7


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Acknowledgements

This free course was written by Dr Derek Neale

Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see terms and conditions), this content is made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 Licence.

The material acknowledged bel
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2 The word ‘freedom’

The word ‘freedom’ can have powerful emotive force, that is, the power to arouse strong emotions. Its connotations are almost exclusively positive. If you describe a group as ‘freedom fighters’ this suggests that you approve of the cause for which they are fighting; call them ‘terrorists’ and you make clear your disapproval.

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2.6 Centre and periphery

Here you have considered some of the ways in which the power and authority of the emperor were communicated to the inhabitants of the empire. The full dynamics of the relationship are difficult to reconstruct especially as the view gained is mainly from Rome looking out to the provinces rather than vice versa. It was important for the emperor to appear to be a competent ruler of the empire. It was one method used by his peers and successors to evaluate an emperor's reign. But it is often diff
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Stakeholders in marketing and finance
This free course, Stakeholders in marketing and finance, comprises two sections introducing the idea of customers and stakeholders for financial information. It also contains two activities in which learners are asked to relate the ideas discussed to their own work practice. None.
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5 Conclusion

The argument underpinning this course has stressed the dangers of seeing implementation as somehow separate from the policy process, or as just one stage within it. Instead it has been emphasised that it is vital to place implementation centrally within that process – involving negotiation, learning and adaptation. Others too have come to regard this as central to the policy process. In the first edition of their book on implementation, Pressman and Wildavsky emphasise the disjunction betwe
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