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Acknowledgements

Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see terms and conditions), this content is made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 Licence

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1 What does the philosophy of the social science offer?

Why study the philosophy of the social sciences? Before we can answer this question we need to ask briefly a whole series of preliminary questions, such as:

  • Why do we study social phenomena?

  • How do we study social phenomena?

  • How does theory help us to deal with complex evidence?

  • Which theory is the most appropriate?

  • Which concepts are most useful for the task?

  • How do
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Introduction

This course provides a further opportunity for you to take notes using audio visual material. Before continuing to watch the clips, please ensure that you have already worked through DD208_1.

Use the advice and guidance that you learnt in DD208_1 to take notes on the video clip presented in this course. Use the note taking techniques you learnt, and remember that your notes need to reflect what each video is showing. You need to identify the nature of the debates and the arguments and i
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Conclusion

This free course provided an introduction to studying sociology. It took you through a series of exercises designed to develop your approach to study and learning at a distance and helped to improve your confidence as an independent learner.


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5 Further reading

For further discussion and explanations of events in New Orleans in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina, G. Squires and C. Hartman's (eds) There is No Such Thing as a Natural Disaster (2006, Routledge) brings together a series of social sciences essays and commentaries around different dimensions of the disaster. There are many books and studies detailing the evolution of council estates in Britain and focusing on the many problems facing some of the residents who live in them. Tony Par
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2.2 Welfare and law enforcement

The conservative focus on, and allegations of, widespread crime and social disorder were contradicted by other eyewitness accounts. In the extract that follows, two white paramedics from San Francisco talk about their experiences in trying to escape from the flooding in New Orleans across a bridge connecting the mainly black New Orleans City to the largely white suburbs of Jefferson Parish.

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2.1 The shaming of America

I begin our story with a case study relating to one of the most momentous episodes of environmental catastrophe in the early 2000s, Hurricane Katrina. On 29 August 2005, Katrina, a category 5 hurricane with 290 kph winds, hit the Gulf of Mexico coast of the southern USA, bearing down on the state of Louisiana and in particular on its main city, New Orleans (Author(s): The Open University

5.1 How did we get here?

We began this course by posing the question: what is a crime? Shouldn't we be finishing with a clear and unambiguous answer to this? Well we are sorry to disappoint you, if that is what you were expecting, but it doesn't look to us as if there is a simple, unambiguous answer. At the very least, according to Sections 1 and 2 of this chapter, there are: legal and normative definitions of crime; recorded and unrecorded crimes; the crimes we fear and the crimes that fascinate us; and stories of c
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Acknowledgements

The material below is contained in chapter 1 of Economics and Economic Change Microeconomics (2006) (eds) Graham Dawson, Maureen Mackintosh and Paul Anand which is published by Pearson Education Limited in association with The Open University. Copyright © The Open University

The material acknowledged below is Proprietary and not subject to Creative Commons Licence and used under licence (see terms and conditions).

Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following sources:
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Learning to learn: Exploring learning
In this free course, Learning to learn: Exploring learning, we encourage you to consider two additional perspectives that can illuminate your learning. The first is the perspective that other people you know can provide; the second is the perspective that can be provided by academic theories about learning. We think that these two perspectives can help you prepare for personal change. PLEASE NOTE: this course is currently being reviewed. An updated and improved version of the course can be found
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7.2 Developing a strategy

Present notes/records that show you have planned your use of problem-solving skills in tackling a selected problem from your study or work. Your evidence must include:

  • the goals you hope to achieve over 3–4 months or so; you should indicate how these goals relate to the context in which you are working and to your current capabilities;

  • how you planned and explored the problem and set out the next stages of the work, for example, using
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7.4 Evaluating your strategy and assessing your work

Include a reflective summary that gives details of:

  • a judgement of your own progress and performance in the information literacy skills you set out to improve, including an assessment of where you feel you have made the greatest progress; discuss how you used criteria and feedback comments to help you assess your progress;

  • those factors that had the greatest effect on your achieving what you set out to do; include those that worked well
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7.2 Developing a strategy

Present notes/records that show you have planned your use of IT skills. Your evidence must include:

  • the goals you hope to achieve over 3–4 months or so; you should indicate how these goals relate to the context in which you are working and to your current capabilities;

  • notes about the resources you might use, and what information you need to research to achieve your goals; for example, discussions and e-conferences, online resources, s
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2.1.1 Rewriting text as relationship diagrams

A spray diagram can help with note-making. In this section, I want to go a little further and show how you can use diagrams to help you understand what someone else has written. Here, it doesn't matter how well you can draw, as long as the finished diagram makes sense to you. As you become more confident at drawing diagrams for yourself, you will be able to move on to drawing diagrams for others.

At this stage, you may still have doubts about the value of diagrams for understandi
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2.1 Analysing text

Some people find it easy to use diagrams in their studies. But I realise that there are others who don't take to diagrams at all enthusiastically. If this is how you feel, please read what follows, as I am convinced that everyone can get something from using diagrams to help their thinking. However, if after working through these sections, you still believe that diagramming as an aid to studying is ‘not for you’, then don't force yourself into an approach that doesn't suit y
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1.2.2 Graphs and charts

Line graphs, histograms and bar charts are diagrams that show the relationship between two different quantities. For example, in hospital, a patient's temperature is often recorded at regular intervals and plotted as a line graph. This allows medical staff to see at a glance how high the temperature is and how it is changing. You often see graphs and charts in the media summarising unemployment figures or a company's profits over the last few months. There are two examples of these types of d
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5.1.10 Philosophy

Flew, A. (ed.) (1979) A Dictionary of Philosophy, London, Pan Books.

Bunnin, N., and Tsui-James, E.P.> (eds) (1996) The Blackwell Companion to Philosophy, Oxford, Blackwell.


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5.1.8 Media Studies

Watson, J. and Hill, A. (eds) (1984) A Dictionary of Communication and Media Studies, London, Arnold.


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Acknowledgements

The content acknowledged below is Proprietary (see terms and conditions) and is used under licence.

Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following sources for permission to reproduce material in this supplement:

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2.3 Summary of Section 2

Mind–body dualism has been a pervasive problem since the seventeenth century. One consequence of this dualism is the way in which bodies have been treated in psychology. They have generally either been ignored or reduced to biology. However, our bodies are much more than simply biology; at the very least, they are the interface between the individual and the social world or, more radically, they are inherently social objects. There is growing recognition of the interaction between our bodie
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