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5.5 Summary of Section 5

When oestradiol combines with its receptor inside neurons, the cell produces proteins which protect it from cell death. As a consequence, the male brain, which has oestradiol in its neurons in early life, becomes different from the female brain, which does not have oestradiol in its neurons. Retinoic acid is needed in high concentrations to produce those proteins associated with posterior structures of the embryo, whilst retinoic acid is needed in low concentrations to produce those proteins
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Session 3: Creating a blogging environment

student learning journey image, JISC

[blurb]

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The histone proteins

The genes for the histone proteins are very highly conserved across eukaryotes, reflecting their importance in DNA packaging. The histone family consists of five groups of proteins, histones H1, H2A, H2B, H3 and H4. An examination of their amino acid content gives us clues as to how the histones fulfil their role in DNA packaging. Rather like the polyamines in bacteria, these proteins are highly positively charged, with up to 20% of their amino acids being lysine or arginine, the charged side
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2.6 Connecting and splicing fibres

There are two different types of fibre joint that need to be considered: permanent splices (the equivalent of soldered or crimped connections on copper cables) and demountable connectors.

Splices are used along a route to allow a link to be built up from convenient lengths of cable. The lengths are typically 2 km. Fibre is manufactured in lengths longer than this, but, once put in a cable, lengths longer than 2 km are difficult to transport and lay. Splices are also used t
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5 ‘Indian’ on the outside

In 1801 and 1805, first Holland and then his assistant William Porden (1775–1822) had been commissioned to make sketches for altering the exterior to a Chinese style so as to match the extravagantly Chinese interiors, but these projects remained unfulfilled ( Plate 14 ). Drawing on the pictorial records brought back by William Alexander f
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Active galaxies

Figure 6 shows a schematic optical spectrum of an active galaxy. It is immediately apparent that the emission lines are stronger and broader than in the spectrum of a normal galaxy shown in Author(s): The Open University

Active galaxies

Figure 10 shows the spectral energy distribution of an active galaxy.

Figure 10
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3.6 Protein kinases

Protein kinases phosphorylate proteins either at tyrosine residues (tyrosine kinases), or at serine and threonine residues (serine–threonine kinases), or on any of these three amino acids (dual-specificity kinases). All these activities are employed in signal transduction pathways (histidine kinases also operate in certain plant and bacterial pathways, but not in animals). You should now be familiar with receptor tyrosine kinases, and have seen in some detail how phosph
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References

Alesina, A. and Perotti, R. (2004) ‘The European Union: a politically incorrect view’, Journal of Economic Perspectives, vol.18, no.4, pp. 27–48.
Buti, M., Eijffinger, S. and Franco, D. (2003) ‘Revisiting the Stability and Growth Pact: grand design or internal adjustment?’, CEPR Discussion Papers, 3692, Centre For Economic Policy Research, London.
Broml
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3.7 Protein phosphatases

Together with inositolphospholipid phosphatases, protein phosphatases are key regulators of signal transduction pathways. Like protein kinases, protein phosphatases are either tyrosine phosphatases (the majority of protein phosphatases, some of which are shown in Figure 44) or serine–threonine phosphatases (including the phosphoprotein phos
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6.3 Directing the growth cone

The growth of the growth cone has been likened to the progress of a climber. The climber can only go where there are satisfactory hand and foot-holds and where progress is not blocked by physical obstacles (e.g. overhangs or ice). Furthermore, the climber is looking ahead for the best routes, from the current position to the top. Likewise the filopodia on the growth cones are extending outwards, adhering to the best holds and avoiding physical obstacles (e.g. bone or cartilage). This contact-
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Model of the monoclinic ZrO2 unit cell
Rotating model of the monoclinic ZrO2 unit cell.
Author(s): DoITPoMS, University of Cambridge

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http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/uk/

6.3.3 Photomultiplier tubes and detection circuitry

The visible photons are collected by an array of photomultiplier tubes behind the crystal. These convert each visible photon to an electron and then multiply the number of electrons sufficiently to give a voltage pulse. Because the number of visible photons is proportional to the energy of the incoming gamma ray, the height of the pulse depends on this energy. This gives a method of counting the numbers of gamma photons at different energies that reach the crystal.

A resistive network c
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1.8.1 Making and using field sketches

How do we start to make sense of a rock exposure? Drawing a sketch is one of the best ways to start, as it forces you to notice many aspects of the exposure. It also helps you to build up a picture of which aspects are significant and which are incidental or even irrelevant to a geological study. The aim of a field sketch is that it provides a record of your observations (along with notes taken at the same time, and also perhaps a photograph to record details). A sketch is complementary to a
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2.1 Structure and function of the outer and middle ear

Figure 1 is a diagram of the human ear. The outer ear consists of the visible part of the ear or pinna, the external auditory canal (meatus), and the tympanic membrane (tympanum) or eardrum. The human pinna is formed primarily of cartilage and is attached to the head by muscles and ligaments. The deep central portion of the
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Learning outcomes

After studying this course, you should be able to:

  • demonstrate an awareness of the issues surrounding public understanding of science

  • engage with some of the debates surrounding this topic.


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Acknowledgements

Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following sources for permission to reproduce material in this course:

Couse image: Mike in Flickr made available under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 Licence.

The content acknowledg
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3.4 Second messengers

In the previous section, we have discussed the principles of second messengers (Section 1.5) and, in particular, those produced by PLC (IP3 and DAG) and PI3 kinase (PI(3,4)P2 and PI(3,4,5)P3). We shall now consider the roles and mechanisms of action of the other chief mediators, which are Ca2+ ions, cAMP and cGMP
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