Pages 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 251 252 253 254 255 256 257 258 259 260 261 262 263 264 265 266 267 268 269 270 271 272 273 274 275 276 277 278 279 280 281 282 283 284 285 286 287 288 289 290 291 292 293 294 295 296 297 298 299 300 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 315 316 317 318 319 320 321 322 323 324 325 326 327 328 329 330 331 332 333 334 335 336 337 338 339 340 341 342 343 344 345 346 347 348 349 350 351 352 353 354 355 356 357 358 359 360 361 362 363 364 365 366 367 368 369 370 371 372 373 374 375 376 377 378 379 380 381 382 383 384 385 386 387 388 389 390 391 392 393 394 395 396 397 398 399 400 401 402 403 404 405 406 407 408 409 410 411 412 413 414 415 416 417 418 419 420 421 422 423 424 425 426 427 428 429 430 431 432 433 434 435 436 437 438 439 440 441 442 443 444 445 446 447 448 449 450 451 452 453 454 455 456 457 458 459 460 461 462 463 464 465 466 467 468 469 470 471 472 473 474 475 476 477 478 479 480 481 482 483 484 485 486 487 488 489 490 491 492 493 494 495 496 497 498 499 500 501 502 503 504 505 506 507 508 509 510 511 512 513 514 515 516 517 518 519 520 521 522 523 524 525 526 527 528 529 530 531 532 533 534 535 536 537 538 539 540 541 542 543 544 545 546 547 548 549 550 551 552 553 554 555 556 557 558 559 560 561 562 563 564 565 566 567 568 569 570 571 572 573 574 575 576 577 578 579 580 11596 result(s) returned

1.1 Policy delivery

The question of policy delivery seems to be growing in importance. So, for example, the Blair governments in the UK were, from the outset, preoccupied with ‘delivery, delivery, delivery’ as ministers and prime minister grew increasingly frustrated with what was often viewed as the intransigence of public service professionals. The constant cycle of change, in which new policies and initiatives were introduced in rapid succession, producing what critics described as ‘policy overload’ o
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Learning outcomes

After studying this course, you should be able to:

  • think critically about and be able to comment on processes by which local practices are situated within their wider contexts

  • think critically about and be able to comment on dimensions of globalisation

  • think critically about and be able to comment on the nature and significance of institutional rules of practice

  • think critically about and be able to comment on some differences between
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Acknowledgements

Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see terms and conditions), this content is made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 Licence

Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following sources for permission to reproduce materia
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References

Brassington, F. and Pettitt, S. (2000) Principles of Marketing, 2nd edn, England, Pearson Education Limited.
Christopher, M., Payne, A. F. T. and Ballantyne, D. (1991) Relationship Marketing: Bringing quality, customer service and marketing together, Oxford, Butterworth Heinemann.
Curtis, J. (2000) ‘A clear view of CRM’, Marketing Direct, No. 50, pp. 4
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Conclusion

The aim of the first section was to introduce you to the concept of the market-led approach to marketing (also referred to as pan-company marketing or marketing orientation) and to differentiate it from ‘marketing department marketing’. I used examples and case studies to make you think about the applicability of this concept to commercial (for-profit) and non-profit organisations, and gave you activities to help you apply it in your own organisation.

Five of the learning outcomes w
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5.4 Activity 8

Activity 8

The M & S case study illustrates the importance of managing relationships. Having read it, try to answer the following questions.

  • On which value discipline has the com
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4.3.2 Operational excellence

Companies that pursue this [value discipline] are not primarily product or service innovators, nor do they cultivate a deep one-to-one relationship with their customers. Instead, operationally excellent companies provide middle-of-the-market products at the best price with the least inconvenience. Their proposition to customers is simple: low price and hassle-free service.

(Treacy and Wiersema, 1996)


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4.2 Narrowing the focus

Offering a unique value proposition involves designing a value-driven operating model. This is a combination of operating processes, management systems, business structures and culture that will give the organisation the ability to deliver superior value. The value-driven operating model is the means of delivering the value proposition.

Organisations that are market leaders have value-driven cultures and management systems that treat all employees as ‘part-time marketers’ (Gu
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3.4 We know what's best for you: high-credence services

The professional's knowledge and experience adds value to the services provided by lawyers and accountants. These types of service are classed as high-credence services. Credence means trust. A lawyer has ‘credentials’ to handle your case – their qualifications are written evidence of trustworthiness and authority.

High-credence services are found in both the commercial and the non-profit sectors. Services are mainly, by their very nature, intangible, so customers have diff
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3.2 Who is the customer?

Customers are people who buy our products and services, and may or may not use them. The key to defining these people as ‘customers’ is that each engages in an exchange relationship that adds value to the organisation providing the product or service. Consumers do not give any value to organisations – there is no exchange relationship. They use products and services, but do not buy them.

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2.1 Three approaches to marketing

This section has been written with the assumption that you have some prior marketing knowledge. As a brief revision you will read how marketing can be described both as an organisation-wide customer-orientated philosophy and as a functional department that handles activities concerned with understanding and satisfying customers’ needs. Studies show a direct link between the success of an organisation and the extent of its market orientation. These marketing concepts are applicable to both f
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References

Brown, A. (1995) Organisational Culture, London, Pitman.
Crace, J. (2000) ‘Feel at home with a job abroad’, Guardian, 14 October.
Drennan, D. (1992) Transforming Company Culture, London, McGraw Hill.
Hofstede, G. (1980) Culture's Consequences: International Differences in Work Related Values, London, Sag
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2 Perfect and efficient markets

Before we consider whether financial markets are indeed efficient in the sense of offering fair prices, we need to look more closely at the definition of an efficient market. The best starting point for this is the concept, in general economic theory, of a perfectly competitive market (or perfect market for short). In a perfect market, there would be no barriers or even temporary delays to the formation of perfectly fair prices, that is, prices would instantaneously and universally reflect al
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1 The market context

There is no other proposition in economics which has more solid empirical evidence supporting it than the Efficient Markets Hypothesis.

(Jensen, 1978)

I'd be a bum on the streets with a tin cup if the markets were efficient.

(Warren Buffett, attrib.)

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3.7 Interest rate risk

This has to be seen in conjunction with the previous comments about the secondary market in shares and debt instruments. An efficient secondary market can ensure that there is always a ready buyer for an investment, but the price at which the investment can actually be sold will depend entirely on market conditions at the time of sale. The secondary market price will not necessarily bear any relation to the price originally paid by the investor. The following example illustrates the general p
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2.2 Calculating returns

Our first question was: what is the mean expected total return for next year? We calculate this by taking each of the possible returns and weighting it by its relative probability. As our table is so simple and symmetrical, it is not difficult to see that the weighted mean return is 7% per annum.

Our second question was: what is the degree of risk or uncertainty in this mean figure? In other words, how widely dispersed are the possible outcomes around the mean expected outcome? The most
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3 Identifying and involving stakeholders in a project

For every project, there will be a range of individuals or groups who have an interest in the different stages of the project. It could be the end users of an IT system, the line managers who will be expected to lead a restructuring initiative throughout the organisation, or the marketing department which will promote a new product. The support of these stakeholders is essential, if the project is to succeed. Therefore a key responsibility of the project manager will be to identify these stak
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Acknowledgements

Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see terms and conditions), this content is made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 Licence

The material acknowledged below is Proprietary and used under licence (not subject to Creativ
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1 What does the philosophy of the social science offer?

Why study the philosophy of the social sciences? Before we can answer this question we need to ask briefly a whole series of preliminary questions, such as:

  • Why do we study social phenomena?

  • How do we study social phenomena?

  • How does theory help us to deal with complex evidence?

  • Which theory is the most appropriate?

  • Which concepts are most useful for the task?

  • How do
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Introduction

This course provides a further opportunity for you to take notes using audio visual material. Before continuing to watch the clips, please ensure that you have already worked through DD208_1.

Use the advice and guidance that you learnt in DD208_1 to take notes on the video clip presented in this course. Use the note taking techniques you learnt, and remember that your notes need to reflect what each video is showing. You need to identify the nature of the debates and the arguments and i
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