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6.3 The roots of segmentation

Why does segmentation occur? One approach to this question focuses upon the evolution of the product markets, from the competitive and the localised to the producer dominated, and from the national to an international market. Technological change makes capital-intensive methods of production possible. Employers, however, are unwilling to undertake large-scale investment unless the product demand is stable and predictable; when demand is variable, labour-intensive techniques are preferred. A g
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6.1 Introduction

In recent years different explanations of how labour markets operate have been proposed by a number of economists dissatisfied with neoclassical theory in general and its explanation for labour market disadvantage in particular. Some of these alternatives simply extend neoclassical models to include the effects of various institutional factors. Others, however, have sought to develop a new theoretical approach. All reject a predominantly competitive analysis and emphasise instead the fragment
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5.3.1 Investment in education and training

Human capital theory has been used to show how investments in education and training lead to higher levels of earning. One reason why education and training are referred to as investments is because their benefits accrue over time and because training early in a career leads to higher earnings over the rest of an individual's working life. An important consideration, therefore, in the decision about whether to invest in additional human capital is the potential length of working life over whi
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3.1 Gender-based disadvantage

The post-war period has seen a significant increase in the participation of women in the labour market, with women now making up around 45 per cent of the UK workforce. Although women still undertake the major share of family responsibilities and domestic activities, an increasing number of women are entering the labour market. This increase is evident in many countries and has been associated with an improvement in the relative earnings of women. This trend towards greater equality is eviden
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2 Discrimination in the labour market: introduction

Discrimination can manifest itself in all aspects of life. It may be evident in the type and location of housing available to certain groups, in their access to quality education and health care or how they are treated in the labour market. We will focus on the last of these considerations and, in particular, why the labour market status of some groups of workers is significantly worse than that for the population at large. This does not mean that discrimination in the labour market is a more
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1.1 Examples of positive working relationships

If you are a childminder or nanny, or if you work in a small-scale setting, it may seem that you have little opportunity to work with other professionals. However, many practitioners in small-scale settings do forge positive working relationships with others. Many are involved in sharing information and certainly in cooperating with other professionals. Whether you are a childminder or you work in a large organisation, what you have in common with all early years practitioners is that you do
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Alumni Profile: Jean-Christophe Bedos SLN2000, Chief Executive Officer, Boucheron
Jean-Christophe Bedos SLN2000 reflects on his career and time at the School.

Capitalism: Success, Crisis and Reform
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