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4.3 Reconstituting older people's personal lives in uncertain times

The multiplicity of different ‘work-endings’ at the close of the twentieth century, combined with the increasing mobilisation of older people through pensioner and ‘third age’ movements, effectively destabilised the institution of retirement and the associated orthodoxy that older age began at the age of 60 or 65 years.

However, voices from within the pensioner movement were marginalised in the process of reconstitution that ensued. A neo-liberal redrawing of the boundari
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3.1 Introduction

In this section the focus turns towards the supply side of the market, towards firms and industries, exploring the importance of costs and technological change in the organisation of production. The objective is to understand some of the different kinds of change in industrial structure, namely changes in the number and size of firms in an industry. One such change saw the emergence of Ford, initially one among many similar firms jostling for position in the US automobile industry, as the ind
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3.1 The impact of information technology

Having discussed the radical and pervasive effect that inventions in previous eras have had on economy-wide productivity, and how they have even defined entire periods, we shall now ask how the rise of information technology compares to these previous revolutions. During the early growth phase of PC use, a leader article in Fortune magazine did not hesitate to compare the rise of the PC to previous technological revolutions.

<
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1 Technological advancement

Everything that can be invented has been invented.

(The Commissioner of the United States Office of Patents, 1899, recommending that his office be abolished, quoted in The Economist, 2000, p. 5)

There is nothing now to be foreseen which can prevent the United States from enjoying an era of business prosperity which is entirely
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Learning outcomes

After studying this unit you should be able to:

  • understand the relationship between technological change and industrial revolutions;

  • appreciate the pervasive effect that new technologies can have on the economy and, in particular, on productivity;

  • understand how industry dynamics can be analysed using the ‘industrial life cycle’ model;

  • use data and historical examples to support economic arguments.


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1 The purpose, efficacy and regulation of prisons

Richard Sparks presents a series of views about the purpose, efficacy and regulation of prisons. The audio programme was recorded in 2001.

Participants in the audio programme were:

  • Richard Sparks Professor of Criminology at the University of Keele and is now Professor of Criminology at the University of Edinburgh;

  • Rod Morgan Professor of Criminal Justice at Bristol University;

  • Larry Viner a
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Learning outcomes

On completion of this unit, you should be able to:

  • identify criteria to evaluate whether prison works.


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Acknowledgements

The content acknowledged below is Proprietary (see terms and conditions). This content is made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 Licence

This extract is taken from D218: Social policy: welfare, power and diversity, produced by the BBC on behalf of the Open University.
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1.6.3 Mailing lists and newsgroups

Mailing or discussion lists are e-mail based discussion groups. When you send an e-mail to a mailing list address, it is sent automatically to all the other members of the list.

The majority of academic-related mailing lists in the UK are maintained by JISCMail  You will find details of joining these mailing lists on the JISCMail website. Mailing lists are useful for getting in touch w
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1.6.1 Introduction

The process of keeping up-to-date in your chosen subject area is useful for your studies and afterwards, for your own personal satisfaction, or perhaps in your career as part of your continuing professional development.

There are a great many tools available that make it quite easy to keep yourself up to date. You can set them up so that the information comes to you, rather than you having to go out on the web looking for it. Over the next few pages, you will be experimenting with some
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1.1 Why Glasgow?

Glasgow fulfilled our aims and was also an interesting case study having, arguably, been the most successful among British cities in developing/manufacturing a new identity in the ‘post-industrial’ era. Glasgow illustrates:

  • (a) power relations, reflected in:

    • constructed images – ‘Glasgow's miles better’ was a deliberate campaign to improve the image of Glasgow.

    • contested images –
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Learning outcomes

By the end of this unit you should be able to:

  • explore ideas about place and identity using our concept of ‘geographical imagination’ by examining the images that represent a place to reveal how those images came about;

  • explore ideas about place and identity by examining the images that represent a place to reveal two sets of relationships that are important in understanding the character of a place: power relations and local-global relations.


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Acknowledgements

The content acknowledged below is Proprietary (see terms and conditions).This content is made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 Licence

This extract is taken from D315: Crime, order and social control, produced by the BBC on behalf of the Open University.

© 2007
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1.1 Engendering citizenship: the notion of social citizenship

Mary Langan talks with Professor Ruth Lister, Professor Fiona Williams, Helen Meekosha and Dr Madeleine Arnot about the notion of social citizenship in relation to the rights and obligations within society, with particular reference to women and disabled people.

Participants in the audio programme were:

  • Mary Langan Senior Lecturer in Social Policy at The Open University;

  • Ruth Lister Professor of Social Policy at Lo
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7 Conclusion

We have explored nations, national self-determination and secession as living political ideas. Perhaps the key points to emerge from the discussion are that:

  • the nation-state is the basic political community in the contemporary world, despite regional and global challenges;

  • subjective approaches to defining nations, prioritising awareness of belonging to a national group, have advantages over efforts to construct objective definitions
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4 What is a ‘nation’?

Guibernau (1996, p. 47) has defined the nation as: ‘a human group conscious of forming a community, sharing a common culture, attached to a clearly demarcated territory, having a common past and a common project for the future and claiming the right to rule itself’. So awareness, territory, history and culture, language and religion all matter. However, it is rare in the real world to find a case of a nation with a clear-cut and homogenous character in terms of this list of possibilities.
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SEM image of Velcro (TM)
Velcro is a system of hard polymer hooks and soft nylon loops, both woven into backing fabric. Inspired by the natural seed propagation mechanism used by some plants in the form of 'burrs', Velcro was invented in Switzerland in 1948 by George de Mestral. [...]
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Further reading

Berger and Luckmann (1967) is a classic text in the development of the social constructionist perspective within the sociological tradition. Burr (1995) offers a very thorough review of the social constructionist perspective, clearly outlining the methods of discourse analysis. Although the book draws significantly on debates within social psychology, it is of wide relevance to the social sciences more generally.


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3.5 Social science approaches

So far we have looked at three more developed discussions of some of the basic propositions about poverty that we considered in section 2. These three examples could be multiplied: there is a variety of explanations of poverty that we could have used. However, these three allow us to reflect a little on the relationship between social science discussions of social problems and common-sense understandings. It is worth starting with some of the differences.


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3.1 Competing explanations of social problems

If we can agree that poverty is a social problem, we are led to another question: what sort of social problem is it? For some, it is a social problem because people should not be poor: it involves social injustice. For others, poverty is a social problem because poor people behave badly (or bring up children poorly): it involves social disorder. We therefore have another parting of the ways, with some believing that social justice requires poor people to become less poor, and others believing
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