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Learning outcomes

After studying this unit you should be able to:

  • define and use each of the terms printed in bold in the text;

  • understand the properties of nucleotides, how they contribute to secondary and tertiary structures of nucleic acids at the molecular level, and how torsional states are maintained in cellular DNA;

  • understand the different composition and roles of nucleic acids in the cell and their interactions with each other and with agents that cau
    Author(s): The Open University

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{Suresh 926} Nice sentences
{Suresh 926} Nice sentences अच्छे वाक्य ( Acchey vaaky) वह क्रोध मैं पागल हो गया | ( Vah kora mein paagal ho gay.) He became mad in anger. यह बात […]

Confucius Says...
This third part of the interview to Dr Adler shows his account on Confucianism's historical background. He explains its China's heritage.
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2.3 Multiplying powers

Powers of ten can be used to investigate what happens when two powers of the same number are multiplied together. For example, consider multiplying 10 by 100:

A billion is a thousand million. In terms of powers this is:

Author(s): The Open University

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4 From DNA to RNA: transcription

In the process of transcription, the information in a gene, i.e. the DNA base sequence, is copied, or transcribed, to form an RNA molecule. RNA is therefore an intermediary in the flow of information from DNA to protein. Before we consider the details of transcription, we will first look at the structure of RNA.

The name ribonucleic acid suggests that RNA is chemically related to DNA. Like DNA, RNA is a chain of nucleotides.

Author(s): The Open University

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5 Biomass conversion of solar energy

Photosynthesis in the geological past was responsible for all fossil fuel reserves, but its products are buried about 2000 times more slowly than we use them at present. The total carbon content of all biomass growing on land is estimated to be 5.6 × 1014 kg and, as Figure 10 shows, about one-fifth of this mass is renewed each year. Figure 6 shows how modern plant biomass is distributed across the continents. Clearly, biological conversion of solar energy to a chemical form in com
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Economic Update: Economic Change, Economic Disorder
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Author(s): maria

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4.1 Introduction

The focus of Section 3 was on LANs that use some kind of physical medium (for example, copper wires or fibre-optic cables) to connect together network nodes. In this section we'll be examining wireless networks – that is, networks that transmit data through the air (or space) using radio waves.

There's nothing new about wireless: the principles of transmitting information using radio waves were discovered over a century ago. However, using radio waves to provide the transmission links
Author(s): The Open University

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Sustainable Scotland
Sustainable Scotland is a free course that will appeal to anyone with an interest in a sustainable future in the context of contemporary Scottish society. It will give you a broad-based introduction to a number of different aspects of sustainability that impact on Scotland and the wider world. First published on Wed, 30 Mar 2016 as
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References

Huse, M. and Kuriyan, J. (2002) The conformational plasticity of protein kinases, Cell, 109, pp. 275–282.
Lipscomb, W. N., Reeke, G. N. Jr, Hartsuck, J. A., Quiocho, F. A. and Bethge, P. H. (1970) The structure of carboxypeptidase A. 8. Atomic interpretation at 0.2 nm resolution, a new study of the complex of glycyl-L-tyrosine with CPA, and mechanistic deduction
Author(s): The Open University

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Project drift

Project drift is a common problem when one project leads into another without a clear break, or when extra tasks, which were not identified at the beginning, are added to a project. If possible, significant changes of the latter kind should be treated separately as a follow-on project: otherwise they may not be properly resourced and this can have adverse consequences for motivation of the project team.

<
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The Polar Vortex Explained in Under 120 Seconds
Ever wondered what Polar Vortex was? Here's BBC's Tomasz Schaferneker with his guide. (01:44)

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5.3 Summary

Common sense is a complex and contested phenomenon. The practice of systematic scepticism is a key aspect of social science, particularly in the analysis of common sense and the consideration of the social construction of social problems. Social constructionism emphasises the importance of social expectations in the analysis of taken-for-granted and apparently natural social processes. It starts by exploring the assumptions associated with the naming or labelling of things. It is sceptical ab
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3.4.1 Calcium ions

The Ca2+ concentration is normally low in the cytosol (~10–7 mol 1–1) compared with the extracellular space (~10–3 mol 1−1). There are several mechanisms for achieving this. The most widespread are ATP-dependent Ca2+ efflux pumps on the plasma membrane, which pump Ca2+ ions out of the cell. Muscle and nerve cells, where oscillations in intracellular Ca2+ concentration often occur, employ an additio
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Inuit Throat Singing
In many cultures, song is perhaps one of the most important traditions. What is extraordinary about the Inuit musical tradition is the way they create their songs - with notes originating from their throats. The song isn't interrupted even when a breath has to be taken. The 6 tracks in this album focus on Tanya Tagaq, who describes the amazing art of throat singing and how her heritage and culture, carried in her heart forever, has driven her to continue with this unique tradition. This mater
Author(s): The iTunes U team

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Project management: the start of the project journey
This free course, Project management: The start of the project journey, introduces projects, what they are, how they come about, responses to problems and planning. It explores the role of key players including the project manager, feasibility studies, decision making and project life cycles. First published
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1 The experience of reading

The best way to develop your understanding of the reading process is to follow the principles of the Kolb learning cycle, by doing some reading and then reflecting on your experience. To this end, Activity 1 asks you to read an extract from an article by Richard Layard (2003) titled ‘The secrets of happiness’ which appeared in the New Statesman. To keep the task manageable I have reduced the article to half its original length and, for ease of reference, paragraph num
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3.2.1 Try some yourself

Activity 37

Poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) porous scaffold for tissue engineering.
The patients own cells are seeded onto the scaffold and allowed to attach and start producing new bone. The construct is implanted into the defect site, where eventually the polymer will biodegrade and be completely removed, leaving a natural autogenous bone graft. Average Pore Size 100-300 micrometre+D7, porosity estimated at 65%.
Author(s): DoITPoMS, University of Cambridge,V A Mellon, Depa

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Lottery Jackpot Probability
Sal Khan discusses the probability of winning a lottery jackpot in under six minutes. 
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