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Facilitating group discussions
Gain an insight into facilitating meetings and discussions in the workplace. In this free course, Facilitating group discussions, you will look at some of the behaviours effective facilitators exhibit. Informative and engaging videos will introduce you to examples of facilitation in practice. First published on Mon, 29 Feb 2016 as Author(s): Creator not set

An introduction to public leadership
In this free course, An introduction to public leadership, you will learn more about leadership in the context of public service provision, by public sector organisations, community and voluntary groups, and political bodies. First published on Thu, 20 Jun 2019 as Author(s): Creator not set

Developing career resilience
This free course, Developing career resilience, will help you to understand the factors that influence career resilience and offer examples and tactics for you to develop your own resilience further. First published on Thu, 09 Aug 2018 as Developing career re
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4.2.7 Implementing the solution

Getting agreement will not in itself ensure effective implementation. An action plan is needed, to set out exactly what each person now has to do. Your adjusted project plan (especially the critical path diagram and Gantt chart) and observation of what is happening should enable you to monitor how the recommended actions are being carried out.

In Example 8 the leader of a children and families team describes how they tackled a quality problem as part of a project to improve the process
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4.2.4 Collecting possible solutions

This is the most creative part of the problem-solving process: it involves breaking the mindset within which situations are normally interpreted. Brainstorming is a good way to generate new approaches, by making sure that even apparently ridiculous ideas are not thrown out in the initial stages. Brainstorming has two basic principles:

  • quantity is more important than quality, in the creative phase;

  • critical comments are not allowed, at th
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4.2 Problem solving

Involving the whole team in the problem-solving process shows that you value their experience and knowledge in devising a solution. It may also be appropriate to involve other stakeholders and/or the project sponsor. If problems are solved jointly there is usually wider ownership of the solutions and their implications; and, if more resources are agreed to be needed or new procedures are put into place, there is also likely to be more support.

Problem solving can be broken down into a s
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2.6 Maintaining balance

Monitoring is also concerned with achieving a balance of the three dimensions of the project:

  • cost – the resources available;

  • time – the schedule;

  • quality – the scope and appropriateness of the outputs or outcomes.

Many of the difficulties in implementing a project are caused by poor time management. This will have a direct effect on the costs of the project, as well as on the quality of what is achie
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2.5 Project meetings schedule

You need to decide early on what meetings are essential to the monitoring process. All your stakeholders will expect to receive reports at regular intervals, whether formally or informally. So you need to ask yourself:

  • Who needs to be informed?

  • About what?

    How often?

  • By what means?

Effective communication involves giving information, collecting information and listening to people. To ensure the smoot
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2.4 Project status reports

Project status reports are regular and formal. You will need to decide how often they are necessary – depending on the size and nature of the project, it might be weekly, monthly or quarterly. In some situations reports might need to be hourly, if a problem is causing serious concern and has the potential to delay progress seriously. Daily reports might be necessary if there are implications for arranging work for the following day.

The degree of risk involved, and the time it would t
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Acknowledgements

Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see terms and conditions), this content is made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 Licence

Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following sources for permission to reproduce materia
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2.8.1 A case study

Figure 18 shows part of a critical path for converting surplus retail space into a warehouse. Each task is represented by an arrow; the length of an arrow does not relate to the duration of the task. The junctions (called nodes) where arrows meet would normally be num
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2.5 Fishbone diagram

There are times when management problems seem too complicated and ‘messy’ to analyse. A technique, the fishbone diagram, can be used by both individuals and groups to help to clarify the causes of a difficult problem and capture its complexity. The diagram will help provide a comprehensive and balanced picture and show the relative importance and interrelationships between different parts of the problem.


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2.3.1 The model

Figure 12 shows some of the influences which bear on an organisation. These influences, of course, are felt not by ‘an organisation’ but by people within the organisation. It is sensible, therefore, to talk about the influences on the management or on the manager
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5.4 The role of brands and branding

Keller (2003) distinguishes between a ‘small-b brand’ as defined by the American Marketing Association:

name, term, sign, symbol or design, or a combination of them, intended to identify the goods and services of one seller or group of sellers and to differentiate them from those of competition

(Keller, 2003, p. 3)

and the industry/practitioner definition of ‘a big-B brand’. F
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1 Course overview

Never before have social issues been more at the centre of public and private debate than at the present. From concerns about sustainability and the future of the planet to the introduction of smoking bans, from actions to combat ‘binge drinking’ and childhood obesity to programmes designed to prevent the spread of AIDS in developing countries, there is a growing recognition that social marketing has a role to play in achieving a wide range of social goals. In the UK, for example, the Nat
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References

Anderson, E.S., Grude, K., Haug, T. and Turner, J.R. (1990) Goal directed project management, London, Kogan Page.
Anthony, R.N., and Young, D.W. (1999) Management Control in Non-profit Organizations, 6th edn, Boston, MA, Irwin/McGraw-Hill.
Elbeik, S. and Thomas, M. (1998) Project Skills, Oxford, Butterworth-Heinemann.
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7.4 Equipment costs

In many projects, staff costs are the most expensive element, but there are other costs to consider, such as materials and equipment. Indeed, in some projects (for example, some military and space projects) these other costs are at least as significant as staff costs. For organisational accounting purposes, a distinction will be required between capital expenditure, or the acquisition of fixed assets, and revenue expenditure, or the incurring of expenses. The work breakdown plan and the sched
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5.1 Introduction

One of the most difficult aspects of planning a project is estimating how long it will take to complete each key stage. An estimate might be based on:

  • the size of the tasks and the effort required to complete them;

  • the number of days that are not available for working on the project;

  • historical data from other projects, including the experience of colleagues.

Where a project has a fixed end-date (for exampl
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4 Identifying deliverables

The project brief will identify the goals of the project and may express some of these as key objectives. At an early stage of planning you will need to identify all of the project objectives and the deliverables that are implied or required from each objective.

Each objective will identify a clear outcome. The outcome is the deliverable. In some cases, the outcome will be some sort of change achieved and in other cases it will be the production of something new. In either case, the pro
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