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1.9 Conclusion

In this course you have seen the importance of the shared meanings that we construct together – how they enable us to act collectively within social situations. In particular, you have explored Goffman’s ideas about how those meanings are constructed through:

  • the way we present ourselves within social situations

  • the way we respond to other people’s presentation of themselves and help to shore up their performances.


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1 Playing roles together

Care relationships are seldom just a matter of ‘doing what come naturally’. For one thing, you may be caring for, or being cared for, by someone you would not otherwise get on with. A care relationship has to adapt to circumstances: it may be brief, as in an acute hospital ward, or it may be very long lasting; it may be flexible according to need or it may involve a high degree of regularity. It is a distinctive relationship with unique elements. Some of the things you and the other perso
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5 Audio clip 4: Sarah Fletcher

Figure 3: Sarah Fletcher

At the time of the int
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2.2 The body as a machine

This is a useful way of thinking if we want to understand some basic aspects of how the body works in its relation to sport. We can think of the body as a device that operates on simple mechanical principles, that needs to be fuelled and that uses up this fuel as it is driven harder.

Figure 1
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Conclusion

This free course provided an introduction to studying Health and Social Care. It took you through a series of exercises designed to develop your approach to study and learning at a distance and helped to improve your confidence as an independent learner.


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3 Anne's experiences

Figure 1
Anne

Anne has arthritis and depression. She is a retired soc
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Keep on learning

Study another free course

There are more than 800 courses on OpenLearn for you to
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2.1.1 Ian Traenor

Figure 1
Ian Traenor

Ian Traenor used to be a former employee of Scot
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1 Fuel poverty

The audio clips in this course feature interviews about fuel poverty in Scotland.

Read through the information about each of the participants, and then listen to the clips in Section 3. As you read, and while you listen, make a note of:

  • the definition of fuel poverty;

  • the main causes of fuel poverty;

  • the other issues or problems related to, or caused by, fuel poverty;

  • ways of tackling the proble
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8 Comment on the audio clips

In the cases of John and Danny, few, if any, of needs were being satisfied. Both were unemployed and, despite some assistance from Social Security, neither was economically secure. Neither of them had protective housing. Both were reliant on public toilets for clean water and, by and large, on charity to obtain nutritious food. Neither had ready access to appropriate health care, and both relied on the Accident and Emergency department at the hospital for medical treatment. John certainly did
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6.2 Concepts of Illness

Sontag (1979) wrote about the metaphors we use to describe illness. Metaphors are ways of speaking about something as if it were something else which is imaginatively but not literally applicable, for instance calling a new moon a sickle. Sontag was mainly concerned with life-threatening illnesses such as cancer and AIDS, and how the metaphors we use can serve to stigmatise the sufferers, for instance referring to AIDS as a gay plague. But people use metaphors to explain illness to themselves
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Acknowledgements

Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see terms and conditions), this content is made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 Licence.

The material acknowledged below is Proprietary and used under licence (not subject
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3 Frequency, intensity, time and type (FITT)

In the previous section the principles of training were considered. When designing an exercise session or programme there are four factors that can be manipulated to adjust the training load – frequency (how often), intensity (how hard), time (how long) and type (what mode), which are commonly referred to by the acronym ‘FITT’.


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1.2.1 Boundaries and terminology

In another context Shakespeare asked, ‘What's in a name?’, and suggested by way of an answer that a rose may smell as sweet whatever it is called. In the context of social boundaries, however, the language used is actually very important in determining ‘who's in’ and ‘who's out’.

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Learning outcomes

After studying this course, you should be able to:

  • understand the complexity and dilemmas of diverse perspectives in the field of mental health and distress

  • undestand the importance of service users/'survivors' experiences and perspectives

  • understand how mental health issues affect everyone

  • understand the range of risks faced by service users/'survivors' in their everyday lives.


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1.6 Models of health care delivery: the biomedical model

Figure 1
Sally and Richard Greenhill ©
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6.3 (b) Switching to renewable energy sources

The use of renewable energy usually involves environmental impacts of some kind, but these are normally lower than those of fossil or nuclear sources.

Approaches (a) and (b) are essentially 'supply-side' measures – applied at the supply end of the long chain that leads from primary energy production to useful energy consumption.


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5.1 Energy services

Except in the form of food, no one needs or wants energy as such. That is to say, no one wants to eat coal or uranium, drink oil, breathe natural gas or be directly connected to an electricity supply. What people want is energy services – those services which energy uniquely can provide. Principally, these are: heat, for warming rooms, for washing and for processing materials; lighting, both interior and exterior; motive power, for a myriad of uses from pumping fluids to lifti
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3.6 Summary

This section has described how fossil fuels provide the majority of the world's energy requirements, with bioenergy, nuclear energy and hydropower also making major contributions. The other 'renewable' energy sources currently supply only a small fraction of world demand, although the contribution of these 'renewables' seems likely to grow rapidly in coming decades, as we shall see in the following section.


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3.5 Hydroelectricity

Another energy source that has been harnessed by humanity for many centuries is the power of flowing water, which has been used for milling corn, pumping and driving machinery. During the twentieth century, its main use has been in the generation of hydroelectricity, and hydropower has grown to become one of the world's principal electricity sources. It currently provides some 2.3 per cent of world primary energy. However, the relative contribution of hydroelectric power (and of other electri
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