Pages 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 251 252 253 254 255 256 257 258 259 260 261 262 263 264 265 266 267 268 269 270 271 272 273 274 275 276 277 278 279 280 281 282 283 284 285 286 287 288 289 290 291 292 293 294 295 296 297 298 299 300 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 315 316 317 318 319 320 321 322 323 324 325 326 327 328 329 330 331 332 333 334 335 336 337 338 339 340 341 342 343 344 345 346 347 348 349 350 351 352 353 354 355 356 357 358 359 360 361 362 363 364 365 366 367 368 369 370 371 372 373 374 375 376 377 378 379 380 381 382 383 384 385 386 387 388 389 390 391 392 393 394 395 396 397 398 399 400 401 402 403 404 405 406 407 408 409 410 411 412 413 414 415 416 417 418 419 420 421 422 423 424 425 426 427 428 429 430 431 432 433 434 435 436 437 438 439 440 441 442 443 444 445 446 447 448 449 450 451 452 453 454 455 456 457 458 459 460 461 462 463 464 465 466 467 468 469 470 471 472 473 474 475 476 477 478 479 480 481 482 483 484 485 486 487 488 489 490 491 492 493 494 495 496 497 498 499 500 501 502 503 504 505 506 507 508 509 510 511 512 513 514 515 516 517 518 519 520 521 522 523 524 525 526 527 528 529 530 531 532 533 534 535 536 537 538 539 540 541 542 543 544 545 546 547 548 549 550 551 552 553 554 555 556 557 558 559 560 561 562 563 564 565 566 567 568 569 570 571 572 573 574 575 576 577 578 579 580 581 582 583 584 585 586 587 588 589 590 591 592 593 594 595 596 597 598 599 600 601 602 603 604 605 606 607 608 609 610 611 612 613 614 615 616 617 618 619 620 621 622 623 624 625 626 627 628 629 630 631 632 633 634 635 636 637 638 639 640 641 642 643 644 645 646 647 648 649 650 651 652 653 654 655 656 657 658 659 660 661 662 663 664 665 666 667 668 669 670 671 672 673 674 675 676 677 678 679 680 681 682 683 684 685 686 687 688 689 690 691 692 693 694 695 696 697 698 699 700 701 702 703 704 705 706 707 708 709 710 711 712 713 714 715 716 717 718 719 720 721 722 723 724 725 726 727 728 729 730 731 732 733 734 735 736 737 738 739 740 741 742 743 744 745 14897 result(s) returned

2.2 Body as ‘identity project’

In Western culture, television ‘makeover’ shows in which individuals opt for plastic surgery or are given advice on clothes, makeup, diet and exercise have gained considerable popular appeal. It seems that large numbers of people are buying into the idea that lives can be radically changed through such makeovers. Supposedly unattractive people who are unhappy with their lives are transformed into supposedly more beautiful and happy people leading satisfying lives. In reality, however, doe
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2.5.1 Highly unsaturated fatty acids

As we saw in Section 1, ‘medical’ approaches to some psychological conditions have focused on biochemistry and the use of corresponding drug treatments. Very little research of this kind has been applied to dyslexia. However, emerging evidence suggests that there may be a biochemical contribution involving abnormal metabolism of highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA) – essential substances that play a key role in brain development and the maintenance of normal brain function. In f
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1.2.2 Medical approaches to normality

What did you write for ‘normal’ eyesight? The ability to see clearly without glasses? It is unlikely that you wrote down short- or long-sightedness as an example of ‘normal’ eyesight, even though they are very common. However, they are not seen as ‘normal’ because having to wear glasses is perceived as a limitation or even a form of disability. This relates to one of several so-called ‘medical models’ of normality, which centre on the idea of uniformity of physical and psychol
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Conclusion

This free course provided an introduction to studying Education, Childhood & Youth qualifications. It took you through a series of exercises designed to develop your approach to study and learning at a distance and helped to improve your confidence as an independent learner.


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5.5 How society constructs scientific thinking

To understand science, it is important that we appreciate the contexts in which discoveries are made or suppressed. We can see from the account on the previous page that human understanding of the universe has changed significantly over time. The social and political climate in which scientists work has always had a profound influence on what can and cannot be said, done, published or even postulated as worthy of further investigation. (You could undertake a similar study of the debates on hu
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Keep on learning

Study another free course

There are more than 800 courses on OpenLearn for you to
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3.2 Assisting, supporting and teaching

The idea that teaching assistants ‘assist’ teachers and ‘support’ learning has been the official view of a teaching assistant’s role for a long time and many policy makers continue to regard their work in this way. Suggesting that teaching assistants teach children has been taboo but this appears to be changing. In England and Wales HLTAs were originally meant to ‘cover’ lessons that were previously planned lessons by teachers but there is reason to think that many are teaching,
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1.4 Titles and duties

In the UK there are a number of terms in current use to describe those who provide learning support to children. It would be misleading to suggest that these terms describe the same roles and responsibilities. Rather, they relate to important role distinctions and are significant because they reflect the wide variety of work that learning support staff do.

Since the 1980s, many teaching assistants across the UK have experienced a notable change in their day-to-day involvement in schools
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5 World tour

This section aims to expand your knowledge of other countries around the globe. It will help you gain an insight into the variety of cultures on our planet.

Activity 18 Continents and their countries in the world

You shou
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2 Why study languages?

This section aims to demonstrate the importance of learning languages and give you a taste of a variety of different languages.

Activity 7

You should allow 10 minutes

Before we
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Conclusion

This free course provided an introduction to studying Languages. It took you through a series of exercises designed to develop your approach to study and learning at a distance, and helped to improve your confidence as an independent learner.


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6 International Christmas

This section aims to raise your intercultural awareness, by exposing you to the many and different Christmas traditions around the world. It will encourage you to discover the connections between language and culture and engage you with online communications and research. You will also be given the opportunity to use your own creativity as a learning tool.

Please note that Christmas has been chosen as an example of a festival which is celebrated in different ways in different cou
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4.4 Where does gender come from?

Activity 15

0 hours 20 minutes

3.9 Being on the receiving end

Case Study 2: The Cameron family

David and Marie Cameron, a married couple in their 40s, live in a middle-class suburb. Marie teaches French at the local secondary school, while David is a full-time official for a clerical workers’ union. Both are active in the local Labour
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2.7.1 Identities are plural

Every person has a range of identities, according to how they see themselves (and how others see them) in terms of gender, ethnicity, sexuality, age, and so on. This means that seeing an individual in terms of one aspect of their identity – as a black person, for example, rather than as (say) a black working-class woman who is also a social worker, a mother and a school governor – is inevitably reductive and misleading.


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Learning outcomes

After studying this course, you should be able to:

  • demonstrate an understanding of competing perspectives on issues of communication, difference and diversity

  • demonstrate an understanding of the ways in which issues of ethnicity, gender and disability impact on interpersonal communication in care services

  • apply ideas about communication and difference to everyday interactions in health and social care contexts

  • analyse the ways in whic
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References

Brown, H. and Smith, H. (1989) ‘Whose “ordinary life” is it anyway?’, Disability, Handicap and Society, Vol. 4, No. 2, pp.105–19.
Craft, A. and Brown, H. (1994) ‘Personal relationships and sexuality: the staff role’, in Craft, A. (ed.) Practical Issues in Sexuality and Learning Disabilities, Routledge, London, pp. 10–22.
Enfield Social Services (1
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1.3.8 Separation from the physical body

Very common is the experience of floating, sometimes on the ceiling, looking down on the body – a sense that the essential part of the person has separated from the physical body. In Michael Sabom’s survey of near-death experiences among non-surgical cases everyone had this sensation, but other studies indicate it is not universal. One woman recorded these feelings in a poem.

Hovering beneath the ceiling, I looked down

Upon a body,
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1.3.7 Emotional feelings

In Sabom’s study all who reported a near-death experience were asked to describe their emotions during the experience. The predominant picture was one of calm, peace and tranquillity, in marked contrast to the physical pain and suffering felt before or after the event. Some spoke of sadness at seeing the efforts and distress of others trying to bring them back to life, and one woman spoke of being very happy until she remembered she was leaving her children behind. A few referred to a sense
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1.3.6 Sense of death

For almost everyone, quite early in the experience there was a strong feeling that they were dying or had already died, but this wasn’t preceded by a conscious anticipation of the nearness of death. One survivor of a heart attack said the first thing he realised after losing consciousness was that ‘something funny was going on … I realised I was dead … that I had died. [I thought] I don’t know whether the doctor knows it or not, but I know it.’


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