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2 2 Conclusion

The versatile tiny transistor is now at the heart of the electronics industry. In the video clips you have seen the history of the incredible shrinking chip, its Scottish connections, and an explanation of the physics that make chips work as well as a reconstruction of making a transistor using the crude techniques of yesteryear.


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Introduction

This unit focuses on the creation of a semiconductor transistor – a versatile tiny transistor that is now at the heart of the electronics industry. In the video clips, the history of the incredible shrinking chip, its Scottish connections and an explanation of the physics that make chips work are accompanied by a reconstruction of making a transistor using the crude techniques of yesteryear.


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4.2 Representing data

But if all the data and computer instructions within a computer are represented by 1s and 0s, how can this limited set of conditions be used to represent, for instance, every letter of the alphabet that might be typed into a computer from a keyboard? Activity 4 showed that there are four possible combinations
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7.2 Difficulties in navigating e-commerce sites

People who are new to computing sometimes find the process of online ordering baffling and frustrating. They get ‘lost’ in the process – for example, by putting something into a virtual shopping cart and then remembering that there's something else they need to look for. So they return to the search engine or the catalogue and then can't find the cart. These kinds of commonly experienced difficulties can be addressed by good and adaptive site design, but still a disturbing proportion of
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Figures

Figure 6 NanoElectronics Japan

Figure 30 The Cottingley Fairies © Science and Society Picture Library

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6.4 Pictures

It used to be thought that a photograph could provide proof of an event – someone could be caught red-handed by a photograph, as proof of their guilt. ‘The camera never lies’, it was said. If you have a digital camera and have been ‘touching up’ photographs on your home computer you will know that this is far from true now. It is easy to lie with a digital photograph.

The idea that the camera never lies has always been a myth, however. As far back as 1917 the photographs of th
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6.3 Authentication of information

When I watch TV news, listen to the radio or buy a newspaper I never think to question whether I really am watching ITV, listening to Radio Five Live or getting the Guardian. In each of these cases it is theoretically possible that they are not who they say they are, but the practicalities of performing the masquerade are so complicated that the possibility can be discarded.

With emails and websites it is a very different matter. Indeed, in recent months I have received several e
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2.6 New media

From film to videotape

Taylor now describes the era when film was replaced with analogue electrical video.


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2.2.4 Public services

In the UK, in many NHS trusts, patient records are easily shared between departments within a hospital. These electronic patient records may soon be transferable across the whole health service, so that medical staff can access them from any part of the NHS. In some places, especially remote rural areas, doctors may be able to make use of computer networks to make a diagnosis if they are unable to see the patient in person.

Passenger information is increasingly available via networked c
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8.1 Introduction

One type of data model is an entity–relationship data model.

Experience has shown that data can be best described by relationships between entities. An entity is anything of interest about which data is recorded, such as roads, weather stations, trucks and weather station readings in the IceBreaker project in the book MRP. In general, there will be many relationships (or associations) linking the entities. A trivial example is the fact that a given weather reading
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6.8 Sharing behaviour between use cases

For each use case there may be more than one scenario. In the process of requirements elicitation and specification, you may find a certain amount of common behaviour in two or more of your use cases. You may even find that an existing component can provide part or all of that common or shared behaviour. Indeed, if you do find such an existing component, this is an example of reusing requirements which is discussed more fully in MRP.

You can record the shared behaviour in
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5.1 More information about modelling techniques

The four remaining diagramming techniques are described in separate sections below, which you should now study:

Diagramming Technique Section
Use case modelling Use Cases and Activity Diagrams
Activity diagrams Use Cases and Activity Diagrams
Entity–
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1.1 Types of model

When the word model is used, you are most likely to bring to mind physical models such as those that are constructed to depict new buildings, cars or other artefacts. Such models are a precursor to actually building the artefact ‘for real’. However, our use of the word goes beyond physical models. For example, when a new house is built there will be a variety of plans produced to show different aspects of the house: its floor plan, a diagram of its location, a drawing of the front elevati
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5.2 An example

In order to complete this section I shall present a simple example. This is loosely based on one described in [1], currently one of the very few books written on JavaSpaces technology.

An object that can be stored in a space has to implement an interface . The objects that form part of the example will just
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4.3 A commercial implementation

In order to conclude this section I shall describe a commercial implementation of an object bus. It has been developed by a company known as SoftWired Ltd and is known as iBus. It is based on TCP/IP rather than UDP. The facilities offered by the iBus API provide developers with the facilities to construct objects which can subscribe to channels and to transmit any Java object to a channel. The code for a transmitter is shown below; the import statements are not shown. In
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Making Mergers Less of a Crapshoot
Very human factors are at play in mergers and acquisitions. Paying attention to them can increase your chance of success.
Author(s): Manfred Kets de Vries, INSEAD Distinguished Clinic

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1.8 Maintenance

Databases are one of the more enduring software engineering artefacts; it is not uncommon to find database implementations whose use can be traced back for 15 years or more. Consequently, maintenance of the database is a key issue.

Maintenance can take three main forms:

  • Operational maintenance, where the performance of the database is monitored. If it falls below some acceptable standard, then reorganisation of the database, usuall
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1.7 Testing

The aim of testing is to uncover errors in the design and implementation of the database, its structure, constraints and associated user and management support. Testing is usually considered to involve two main tasks – validation and verification. Without adequate testing users will have little confidence in their data processing.

Validation answers the question: has the right database been developed to meet the requirements? It attempts to confirm that the right database has been co
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6.1.1 The user interface

An interface to a washing machine does not need to be like the interface to a personal computer (a user interface is a display/control panel that enables the user to control a machine or interact with a program). It is specific to the task of washing laundry, which involves two things:

  1. displaying the choices that relate to washing laundry (such as type of laundry to be washed, water temperature, and spin speed);

  2. displaying some indica
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