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1.2.5 Together Forever

At the opposite end of the spectrum stand Paul and Gemma Massey, the British co-ordinators of Together Forever, an affiliation of the Flame Foundation, a group of self-proclaimed physically immortal people in Arizona. The Foundation began some 30 years ago after an Evangelical minister, Charles Paul Brown, claimed to have had a ‘cellular awakening’ in which Christ told him that physical immortality was the true Christian message.

The group claims to have about 2,000 members world-wi
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1.1 Living with death and dying

Knowledge and beliefs about death can have a profound effect both on the way people live and the way they approach their own death. In this Unit we look in depth at these issues. There are three sections.

The first section addresses the effects that the knowledge that we die has on our lives. Here we explore how the beliefs people hold about death affect the meaning they attach to life. We try to imagine what life would be like if it did not end in death. Given that we do die, we examin
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1.2 Where can you find life stories?

Life stories are everywhere. In adverts, magazines, music, sport, politics, chat shows, the messages we get are personalised through interviews and stories which tell us about quite intimate details of people's lives, feelings, emotions and even what feel like secrets. Autobiography and personal accounts have also become increasingly common means of revealing different versions of the past, with television and radio programmes focusing on ‘ordinary’ life events or the stories of ‘ordina
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2 A day in the life of a hospital ward

In 1996, we visited Ward 29, one of two gastroenterology wards in the medical unit, and recorded the views of patients and staff. The ward has 24 beds. Its patients were women and men, across a wide age range, suffering from digestive disorders – for example, stomach ulcers, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, cancers of the digestive system or problems with liver function brought on by alcohol abuse. Because it was winter the ward had more elderly people than it would have at other times
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1.5.1 Agreeing who to be

So far I have focused on one-to-one interactions. Yet ‘defining a scene’ is often a group effort. Goffman says this involves teamwork, with all participants, in effect, agreeing to act and speak within an overall frame of reference. He suggests that it works like a theatrical play in which everyone has taken on a part within the scene. To play your part means setting aside all those aspects of yourself which are not relevant to your role. The scene works only because everyone plays their
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6.3 The role of oxygen in sports performance

The body uses oxygen in a chemical process that produces fuel for the muscles. You might think that the transfer of oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body is vitally important for all athletes. However, you might be surprised to hear that although this process is important in many sports, it doesn't matter very much at all in quite a few. The reason for this is fairly straightforward: the transfer of oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body takes time. In events that don't
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6.2 The body, the lungs and oxygen

The figure shows a simple image of how the lungs absorb oxygen from the air.

Figure 11
Figure 11 Air and blood flow

Air contains several differ
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6.1 Introduction

We have learnt that part of the reason the heart pumps blood around is to make sure that the body gets a fresh supply of oxygen. So in the same way that our hearts need to keep beating, we need to keep breathing oxygen into our lungs to survive. But what is the function of oxygen? Why does our body need oxygen, and what does it do with it once we have breathed it in? These are some of the questions that we will examine in first part of this section.

In the second part of this section, w
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4.1 Introduction

The heart is the engine of the human body – but what about it's specific function in athletes participating in sport? We have seen that athletes need to get oxygen and nutrients to different parts of their body quickly – this means they need an efficient cardiovascular system, this means having an efficient heart.

What do we mean by an efficient heart? We mean one that pumps a lot of blood with every beat and that can beat quickly for a long period of time. An athlete's heart differ
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3 Problems with quantification

One of the main problems with the medicalisation of death and dying is the idea that science has all the answers. Illness and dying carry the same degree of unpredictability and uncertainty as all everyday life events. So when service providers draw on medical knowledge and experience to offer some certainty and in one way to quantify the dying experience, it can be difficult to challenge. Indeed, there is a tension between wanting certainty and hoping for things to be different. Campaigner a
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Learning outcomes

By the end of this unit you should be able to:

  • show knowledge and understanding of the critical importance of service users' views in all aspects of health and social care management.


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References

Putnam, R.D. (2000) Bowling Alone: The collapse and revival of American community, New York, Simon Schuster.
Stott, M. and Hodges, J. (1996) ‘Local exchange and trading systems, never knowingly understood’, Local Economy, November, pp. 266–8.
Taylor, M. (2003) Public Policy in the Community, London, Palgrave Macmillan.
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Learning outcomes

By the end of this unit you should be able to:

  • give examples of how LETS work as a community development.


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2 Pressure for change

Bedford Mencap was founded in 1955, as a branch of the National Association for Parents of Backward Children. It provides services for its members, such as the Welfare Visitors Scheme, and also campaigns for change at national and local levels. When the branch was founded there was no provision for families other than the advice to put their child into a mental handicap hospital. Now, partly due to the efforts of Mencap, there is far more on offer. However, you'll shortly be hearing that whil
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4 Gaynor and Liz comment on Anne's situation

Activity 4

In this final clip, you will Gayor and Liz talk about their views on Anne's situation. Listen to their comments and add any additional points to the notes you began in the previous section.

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8 Comment on the audio clips

In the cases of John and Danny, few, if any, of needs were being satisfied. Both were unemployed and, despite some assistance from Social Security, neither was economically secure. Neither of them had protective housing. Both were reliant on public toilets for clean water and, by and large, on charity to obtain nutritious food. Neither had ready access to appropriate health care, and both relied on the Accident and Emergency department at the hospital for medical treatment. John certainly did
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Acknowledgements

The content acknowledged below is Proprietary (see terms and conditions) and is used under licence.

Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following sources for permission to reproduce material in this unit:

The material acknowledged below contains Proprietary content which is used under licence (not subject to <
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1 The Chinese Welfare Association's Carer Support Project, Belfast

This audio unit features a project that was set up in Northern Ireland specifically to support Chinese carers. It is one of several projects being run by the Chinese Welfare Association in Belfast at that time.

The Chinese Welfare Association

The Chinese Welfare Association is a voluntary orga
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4.3 Understanding lay knowledge

Popay et al. (1998) are also concerned that lay knowledge be taken seriously to help us understand the causes of variations in health status found in different social groupings. It has been suggested that we need a ‘lay epidemiology’ which would study the experiences of individuals and their biographies within specific social situations. They argue that people express their views on health in narrative form which is, as they say, ‘antithetical to traditional models of cause and effect,
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1.3 Models of understanding in mental health

Because mental health is such a complex area, it is important that the models of understanding which are applied to it are broader than the ‘biomedical’ one alone, which focuses simply on professional activity and on diagnoses and treatment. The box below provides a quick summary of the biomedical model.

The biomedical model


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