CompendiumÂ  is a knowledge map software tool for visual thinking. It can be used for personal reflection as you study or work on a problem, and you can share your maps with others â€“ your summary of a topic or a learning path through, say, an OpenLearn unit.

An influence diagram shows the influences, from within the organisation or from outside it, which bear on a person or unit.

Author(s): The Open University

This first representation can be developed in the way shown in Figure 11.

For example, think about the inputs to the running of a commuter rail operation and the outputs from it. The diagram might look like the one in Figure 10.

When a line cuts an axis, the line is said â€˜to intercept the axis atâ€™ [the particular point]. In this example, the line cuts the vertical (y) axis at Â£10, so â€˜the line intercepts the y axis at Â£10â€™. It can also be said that â€˜the intercept with the y axis is Â£10â€™.

Author(s): The Open University

The total costs depend on the output, so the output is the â€˜independent variableâ€™ and the total costs are the â€˜dependent variableâ€™. When there is a dependence of this kind, the independent variable is plotted on the horizontal axis, which is also called the x axis. In the graph, output has been plotted on the horizontal axis. The dependent variable is plotted on the vertical axis, also called the y axis. The total costs have been plotted on the vertical axis.

Author(s): The Open University

By the end of this unit you should be able to:

• understand the value of graphics as visual thinking tools;

• give examples of relevant graphics used in the business context.

Author(s): The Open University

Market segmentation and targeting is at the core of marketing strategy and consumers (or potential consumers) are the key stakeholder group for both commercial and social marketers. In this section we focus on those specific consumers whose behaviour is the focus of the social marketing activity.

In Section 3.2, the factors which impact
Author(s): The Open University

The extended Fishbein model, based on the theory of reasoned action, includes the following components to explain behaviour.

1. Attitude to the behaviour comprising:

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• a. The strength of the expectancy (beliefs) that the act will be followed by a consequence.

• b. The value of that consequence to the individual.

This is the basic expectancy value approach. Returning to o
Author(s): The Open University

This is the risk that contractual returns will not be paid because the borrower's financial situation has deteriorated to the point that it is no longer able to service the debt. It is possibly the commonest type of risk in commerce generally, and you are probably familiar with it in some shape or form. It affects many areas of business decision-making over and beyond the specialised world of investment risk and return. Most large companies devote significant resources to the identification,
Author(s): The Open University

The maturity of an investment is the date when the investor is contractually entitled to demand repayment of the investment and the associated return. Some investments (such as company shares, as discussed in Section 3.1) actually have no contractual maturity. Others â€“ such as demand deposits at banks â€“ are subject to contractual repayment
Author(s): The Open University

Our first question was: what is the mean expected total return for next year? We calculate this by taking each of the possible returns and weighting it by its relative probability. As our table is so simple and symmetrical, it is not difficult to see that the weighted mean return is 7% per annum.

Our second question was: what is the degree of risk or uncertainty in this mean figure? In other words, how widely dispersed are the possible outcomes around the mean expected outcome? The most
Author(s): The Open University

A fair return on investment is defined as one that compensates the investor for the risk incurred in making the investment â€“ neither more nor less. Conversely, an excess return is one that over-compensates the investor for the risk incurred. Investors want to avoid investments that pay less than a fair return, while borrowers want to avoid paying an excess return. In this unit we shall:

• define more precisely what we mean by â€˜riskâ€™ in a fi
Author(s): The Open University

Once the detailed planning and risk assessments have been carried out, you are ready to assemble your implementation plan. A typical implementation plan, including diagrams and charts where appropriate, will contain:

• a description of the background to the project;

• its goals and objectives in terms of intended outputs and/or outcomes;

• the resource implications (budget, personnel â€“ including any training requirements
Author(s): The Open University

This unit will help you to develop the skills required when planning a project. You will examine the various components of a project plan, and be introduced to a number of tools and techniques to aid planning.

This material is from our archive and is an adapted extract from Fundamentals of Senior Management (B713) which is no longer taught by The Open University. If you want to study formally with us, you may wish to explore other courses we offer in this Author(s): The Open University

Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see terms and conditions), this content is made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 Licence

Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following sources for permission to reproduce material in this unit:

## Author(s): The Open UniversityLicense informationRelated contentExcept for third party materials and/or otherwise stated (see terms and conditions) the content in OpenLearn is released for use under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share

Consider joining a learned society or professional organisation. They can be very useful for conference bulletins as well as in-house publications, often included in the subscription. Don't forget to ask about student rates. Try looking for the websites of learned societies associated with your subject area (e.g. The Royal Society, the Institute of Electrical
Author(s): The Open University

The founder of Technorati claims that the number of â€˜blogsâ€™ doubles every five months and that the creation rate is approaching two per second. One estimate I read in July 2010 put the number at 400 million blogs. Because these online diaries offer instant publishing opportunities, you potentially have access to a wealth of knowledge from commentators and experts (if they blog) in a wide range of fields. Most internet searc
Author(s): The Open University

Online bookshops and some of the major search engines offer â€˜Alertsâ€™ services. These work by allowing you to set up a profile once you have registered on their site, and when there are items meeting your criteria you receive an email. The good thing about alerts is that you donâ€™t have to do anything once you have set up your profile. The downside, particularly with alerts services from the search engines, is that given the extent to which internet traffic is on the increase whether new
Author(s): The Open University

If you donâ€™t use a system at all, then you could suffer from the effects of information overload:

• losing important information

• wasting time on trying to find things

• ending up with piles of physical and virtual stuff everywhere

One technique you might like to apply to your files (be they paper or electronic) is the 5Ds. Try applying these and see if you can reduce your information overload.

Author(s): The Open University