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02 - Putting yourselves into other people's shoes
At the start of the lecture, we introduce the "formal ingredients" of a game: the players, their strategies and their payoffs. Then we return to the main lessons from last time: not playing a dominated strategy; and putting ourselves into others' shoes. We apply these first to defending the Roman Empire against Hannibal; and then to picking a number in the game from last time. We learn that, when you put yourself in someone else's shoes, you should consider not only their goals, but also how sop
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26 - Learning from and Responding to Financial Crisis, Part II (Guest Lecture by Lawrence Summers)
In the second of his two lectures in honor of Arthur Okun, Professor Summers points out that real interest rates have been very low in the current subprime crisis. This indicates that the shock to the economy was more a financial breakdown shock than a disinflation shock. But financial breakdown shocks are not necessarily very harmful to the economy, so long as financial intermediation capital is not destroyed. In a financial crisis like the present one, financial firms are likely to take the st
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21 - Forwards and Futures
Futures markets were started in Osaka, Japan in the 1600s to create an authoritative and meaningful market price for agricultural products, using standardized contracts. Since then, futures markets have been copied around the world to allow the hedging various future risks, financial and other. In the United States, the Chicago Mercantile Exchange and the Chicago Board of Trade have been the most popular futures trading markets. Although futures markets are changing and becoming more electronic,
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05 - Insurance: The Archetypal Risk Management Institution
Insurance provides significant risk management to a broad public, and is an essential tool for promoting human welfare. By pooling large numbers of independent or low-correlated risks, insurance providers can minimize overall risk. The risk management is tailored to individual circumstances and reflects centuries of insurance industry experience with real risks and with moral hazard and selection bias issues. Probability theory and statistical tools help to explain how insurance companies use ri
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03 - Technology and Invention in Finance
Technology and innovation underlie finance. In order to manage risks successfully, particularly long-term, we must pool large amounts of risk among many, diverse people and overcome barriers such as moral hazard and erroneous framing. Inventions such as insurance contracts and social security, and information technology all the way from such simple things as paper, and the postal service to modern computers have helped to manage risks and to encourage financial systems to address issues pertaini
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07 - Inferno XIX, XXI, XXV, XXVI
This lecture deals primarily with cantos 19 and 26 of Inferno. Simony, the sin punished in Inferno 19, is situated historically to point out the contiguity of the sacred and the profane and its relevance to the prophetic voice Dante established in this canto. The fine line between prophecy and profanation is shown to resurface in Inferno 24 and 25, where the poet falls prey, as did the pilgrim in Inferno 4, to poetic hubris. Once again, the dangers of Dante’s poetic vocation are dramatized
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Cells: Molecules and Mechanisms
Cells: Molecules and Mechanisms is a CC-licensed, open access textbook that can be effectively used as a resource in both introductory (underclassmen) and more advanced (upperclassmen) college cell and molecular biology courses. This book was written and designed for the student learning process, and ...
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Lecture 27: Nervous System 2
This course covers the fundamental principles of biochemistry, genetics, molecular biology, and cell biology. Biological function at the molecular level is particularly emphasized and covers the structure and regulation of genes, as well as, the structure and synthesis of proteins, how these molecules are integrated into cells, and how these cells are integrated into multicellular systems and organisms. In addition, each version of the subject has its own distinctive material. The focus of the c
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Lecture 23: Immunology 2
This course covers the fundamental principles of biochemistry, genetics, molecular biology, and cell biology. Biological function at the molecular level is particularly emphasized and covers the structure and regulation of genes, as well as, the structure and synthesis of proteins, how these molecules are integrated into cells, and how these cells are integrated into multicellular systems and organisms. In addition, each version of the subject has its own distinctive material. The focus of the c
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Lecture 06: Genetics 1
This course covers the fundamental principles of biochemistry, genetics, molecular biology, and cell biology. Biological function at the molecular level is particularly emphasized and covers the structure and regulation of genes, as well as, the structure and synthesis of proteins, how these molecules are integrated into cells, and how these cells are integrated into multicellular systems and organisms. In addition, each version of the subject has its own distinctive material. The focus of the c
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Lecture 02: Biochemistry 1
This course covers the fundamental principles of biochemistry, genetics, molecular biology, and cell biology. Biological function at the molecular level is particularly emphasized and covers the structure and regulation of genes, as well as, the structure and synthesis of proteins, how these molecules are integrated into cells, and how these cells are integrated into multicellular systems and organisms. In addition, each version of the subject has its own distinctive material. The focus of the c
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15.391 Early Stage Capital (MIT)
15.391 examines the elements of raising early stage capital, focusing on start-up ventures and the early stages of company development. This course also prepares entrepreneurs to make the best use of outside advisors, and to negotiate effective long-term relationships with funding sources. Working in teams, students interact with venture capitalists and other professionals throughout the semester. Disclaimer: The web sites for this course and the materials they offer are provided for educational
Author(s): Loessberg, Shari

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Content within individual OCW courses is (c) by the individual authors unless otherwise noted. MIT OpenCourseWare materials are licensed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under a Creative C

2.1 Layers of communication

An internetwork is a network of networks, composed of terminals, switches and communication media. The overall objective of an internetwork is to allow communication between two (or more) networks. This simple description hides the complications that arise in real networks, in which the types of medium vary, transmission errors occur, transmission links fail, switches fail or become congested, equipment is produced by different manufacturers, networks are owned and maintained by differ
Author(s): The Open University

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Copyright © 2016 The Open University

Acknowledgements

The material acknowledged below is Proprietary (see terms and conditions) and used under licence (not subject to Creative Commons licence).

The content is from SM358_1 Book 1 Wave Mechanics – Chapter 7 Scattering and Tunnelling, pages 178–209.

Grateful acknowledg
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Copyright © 2016 The Open University

Leeson on Pirates and the Invisible Hook
Peter Leeson of George Mason University and author of The Invisible Hook talks with EconTalk host Russ Roberts about the economics of 18th century pirates and what we can learn from their behavior. Leeson argues that pirates pioneered a number of important voluntary institutions such as constitutions as a way to increase the profitability of their enterprises. He shows how pirates used democracy and a separation of powers between the captain and the quartermaster to limit the potential for preda
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Graham on Start-ups, Innovation, and Creativity
Paul Graham, essayist, programmer and partner in the y-combinator talks with EconTalk host Russ Roberts about start-ups, innovation, and creativity. Graham draws on his experience as entrepreneur and investor to discuss the current state of the start-up world and how that world has changed due to improved technology that makes it easier to start a software company. Graham talks about his unusual venture firm, the y-combinator, and how he and his partners work with start-ups to get them ready for
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Is there a Crisis in World Journalism? Dr Suzanne Franks
Suzanne Franks is Director of Research at Kent University’s Centre for Journalism. At the start of her journalism career she worked with the BBC as a researcher on documentaries and then joined the Television Current Affairs department, producing programmes such as Newsnight, Watchdog, The Money Programme and Panorama. In the 1990s she started an independent production company, Sevenday Productions, which was awarded the first outside contract for the televising of Parliament. She was based in
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Australia's bid for election to the UN Security Council - What will it mean for Australia?
Australia was last elected to the Security Council in 1984 and it is standing for election again in 2012. Over the past 25 years the world environment and the Security Council have changed dramatically. In 1984 the Council suffered from cold war paralysis, but it is now a key instrument of 21st century security policy. Competition for election is intense. Membership of the Council now involves a completely different set of risks and opportunities. Colin Keating was New Zealand Ambassador on the
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Week 01 Lecture: Introduction
The first lecture introduces students to the course, the teaching staff, and the course themes. Richard and Alastair will share their views on teaching and learning, providing students with an opportunity to think about the ways they have learnt through primary and secondary school, into tertiary education. This lecture will also cover the assessment scheme, assessment tasks, and if time permits start on defining the central themes of the course: "environment", "society", and "resources".
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Lecture 33: Molecular Medicine 2
This course covers the fundamental principles of biochemistry, genetics, molecular biology, and cell biology. Biological function at the molecular level is particularly emphasized and covers the structure and regulation of genes, as well as, the structure and synthesis of proteins, how these molecules are integrated into cells, and how these cells are integrated into multicellular systems and organisms. In addition, each version of the subject has its own distinctive material. The focus of the c
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