The extended Fishbein model, based on the theory of reasoned action, includes the following components to explain behaviour.

1. Attitude to the behaviour comprising:

Â

• a. The strength of the expectancy (beliefs) that the act will be followed by a consequence.

• b. The value of that consequence to the individual.

This is the basic expectancy value approach. Returning to o
Author(s): The Open University

This is the risk that contractual returns will not be paid because the borrower's financial situation has deteriorated to the point that it is no longer able to service the debt. It is possibly the commonest type of risk in commerce generally, and you are probably familiar with it in some shape or form. It affects many areas of business decision-making over and beyond the specialised world of investment risk and return. Most large companies devote significant resources to the identification,
Author(s): The Open University

The maturity of an investment is the date when the investor is contractually entitled to demand repayment of the investment and the associated return. Some investments (such as company shares, as discussed in Section 3.1) actually have no contractual maturity. Others â€“ such as demand deposits at banks â€“ are subject to contractual repayment
Author(s): The Open University

Our first question was: what is the mean expected total return for next year? We calculate this by taking each of the possible returns and weighting it by its relative probability. As our table is so simple and symmetrical, it is not difficult to see that the weighted mean return is 7% per annum.

Our second question was: what is the degree of risk or uncertainty in this mean figure? In other words, how widely dispersed are the possible outcomes around the mean expected outcome? The most
Author(s): The Open University

A fair return on investment is defined as one that compensates the investor for the risk incurred in making the investment â€“ neither more nor less. Conversely, an excess return is one that over-compensates the investor for the risk incurred. Investors want to avoid investments that pay less than a fair return, while borrowers want to avoid paying an excess return. In this unit we shall:

• define more precisely what we mean by â€˜riskâ€™ in a fi
Author(s): The Open University

Once the detailed planning and risk assessments have been carried out, you are ready to assemble your implementation plan. A typical implementation plan, including diagrams and charts where appropriate, will contain:

• a description of the background to the project;

• its goals and objectives in terms of intended outputs and/or outcomes;

• the resource implications (budget, personnel â€“ including any training requirements
Author(s): The Open University

This unit will help you to develop the skills required when planning a project. You will examine the various components of a project plan, and be introduced to a number of tools and techniques to aid planning.

This material is from our archive and is an adapted extract from Fundamentals of Senior Management (B713) which is no longer taught by The Open University. If you want to study formally with us, you may wish to explore other courses we offer in this Author(s): The Open University

Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see terms and conditions), this content is made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 Licence

Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following sources for permission to reproduce material in this unit:

## Author(s): The Open UniversityLicense informationRelated contentExcept for third party materials and/or otherwise stated (see terms and conditions) the content in OpenLearn is released for use under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share

Consider joining a learned society or professional organisation. They can be very useful for conference bulletins as well as in-house publications, often included in the subscription. Don't forget to ask about student rates. Try looking for the websites of learned societies associated with your subject area (e.g. The Royal Society, the Institute of Electrical
Author(s): The Open University

The founder of Technorati claims that the number of â€˜blogsâ€™ doubles every five months and that the creation rate is approaching two per second. One estimate I read in July 2010 put the number at 400 million blogs. Because these online diaries offer instant publishing opportunities, you potentially have access to a wealth of knowledge from commentators and experts (if they blog) in a wide range of fields. Most internet searc
Author(s): The Open University

Online bookshops and some of the major search engines offer â€˜Alertsâ€™ services. These work by allowing you to set up a profile once you have registered on their site, and when there are items meeting your criteria you receive an email. The good thing about alerts is that you donâ€™t have to do anything once you have set up your profile. The downside, particularly with alerts services from the search engines, is that given the extent to which internet traffic is on the increase whether new
Author(s): The Open University

If you donâ€™t use a system at all, then you could suffer from the effects of information overload:

• losing important information

• wasting time on trying to find things

• ending up with piles of physical and virtual stuff everywhere

One technique you might like to apply to your files (be they paper or electronic) is the 5Ds. Try applying these and see if you can reduce your information overload.

Author(s): The Open University

Finding your paperwork or electronic files can be a problem. You may find that even if you do have some sort of filing system, your structure soon gets quite large with files in multiple locations, which can be hard to navigate. You may find yourself making arbitrary decisions about which folder to place a document in. It may make sense now but in the future, when you look where you think it should be, itâ€™s not there.

At times like this you may resort to the search command from the Wi
Author(s): The Open University

• 87% of items that are filed into a filing cabinet are never looked at again. STANFORD UNIVERSITY

• TIn 2010, the worldâ€™s digital information output was estimated to pass 1.2 zettabytes. A zettabyte is a new term which equals a thousand billion gigabytes.UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA (BERKELEY)

• A new blog is created every second. TECHNORATI

• 10% of salary costs are wasted as employee
Author(s): The Open University

The date when information was produced or published can be an important aspect of quality. This is not quite as simple as saying that 'good' information has to be up to date.

## Activity

Here is an example of a news item from an onli
Author(s): The Open University

The provenance of a piece of information (i.e. who produced it? where did it come from?) may provide another useful clue to its reliability. It represents the 'credentials' of a piece of information that support its status and perceived value. It is therefore very important to be able to identify the author, sponsoring body or source of your information.

Why is this important?

Author(s): The Open University

One of the characteristics of â€˜goodâ€™ information is that it should be balanced and present both sides of an argument or issue. This way the reader is left to weigh up the evidence and make a decision. In reality, we recognise that no information is truly objective.

This means that the onus is on you, the reader, to develop a critical awareness of the positions represented in what you read, and to take account of this when you interpret the information. In some cases, authors may be
Author(s): The Open University

By presentation, we mean, the way in which the information is communicated. You might want to ask yourself:

• Is the language clear and easy to understand?

• Is the information clearly laid out so that it is easy to read?

• Are the fonts large enough and clear?

• Are the colours effective? (e.g. white or yellow on black can be difficult to read)

• If there are graphics or photos, do they help
Author(s): The Open University

There are many websites where you will find useful information for business and management. With all information on the internet you need to make a judgement on the reliability of the information.

Interactive Investor InternationalA good market data site, offering a mixture of real-time, dela
Author(s): The Open University

Many news sources are now available online. Searching an online version of a newspaper is easier, quicker and more effective than searching through printed indexes, microfilm or actual newspapers.

 Abyz News Links A portal to online news sources from around the world, providing up-Author(s): The Open UniversityLicense informationRelated contentExcept for third party materials and/or otherwise stated (see terms and conditions) the content in OpenLearn is released for use under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share Copyright 2009 University of Nottingham