4.2 Summary: creating music

Both of these performances clearly belong to traditions where the ‘composer’ and the composer's identified works are rather less important than they are in Western art music. Every performance of Indian or Sundanese music is unique, and yet every performance draws on repertoire and techniques which have been learned. The total repertoire exists not as a set of written works, but in the minds of performing musicians – the music only really exists in performance, and each performance is a
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

1.4 Models and building blocks

When any musicians perform they refer to something pre-existent, something we might call a ‘model’ or ‘referent’. For musicians performing written music, the most important of these (although not necessarily the only one) is the score or part from which they perform. Depending on the particular genre and period in question, the performer may have freedom to choose or alter certain parameters (tempo, dynamics, phrasing, in some cases the notes themselves), but the score will indicate,
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

1.2 Different perspectives on the creation of music

If a simple division into composition and improvisation is not going to be adequate, particularly when considering music beyond the Western art tradition, then what can we usefully say about the different ways in which music is created? A starting point might be to remind ourselves of the similarities between composition and improvisation. Both the improviser and the composer create music. Both of them, in doing so, draw on a range of skills and experience: their musical training and k
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

The banking crisis: cause and effect
Autumn 2008 witnessed a global financial crisis with governments worldwide taking emergency action to prevent a collapse of the banking system. The aftermath of the worst financial crisis since the 1930s saw economic activity slump. In the UK, higher unemployment, falling house prices and a sharp increase in government debt proved to be the alarming legacy of the near implosion of the banking system. This fascinating insight into the downfall of the global financial markets gives us a clear unde
Author(s): The OpenLearn team

License information
Related content

Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see http://www.open.ac.uk/conditions terms and conditions), this content is made available under a http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2

Project management: the start of the project journey
This free course, Project management: The start of the project journey, introduces projects, what they are, how they come about, responses to problems and planning. It explores the role of key players including the project manager, feasibility studies, decision making and project life cycles. First publis
Author(s): Creator not set

License information
Related content

Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see http://www.open.ac.uk/conditions terms and conditions), this content is made available under a http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2

Introduction

This course will help you to develop the skills required when planning a project. You will examine the various components of a project plan, and be introduced to a number of tools and techniques to aid planning.

This OpenLearn course provides a sample of postgraduate study in Business


Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

Building relationships with donors
Legacy fundraising and big-gift seeking are part of the professional fundraiser's role. This free course, Building relationships with donors, will help you to gain the skills necessary to persuade individuals to become donors. How do you change people's ideas about methods of giving, moving them from casual street donations to regular direct debit giving? Author(s): Creator not set

License information
Related content

Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see http://www.open.ac.uk/conditions terms and conditions), this content is made available under a http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2

Understanding operations management
Operations management is one of the central functions of all organisations. This free course, Understanding operations management, will provide you with a basic framework for understanding this function, whether producing goods or services or in the private, public or voluntary sectors. In addition, this OpenLearn course discusses the role of operations managers and the importance of focusing on suppliers and customers. Author(s): Creator not set

License information
Related content

Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see http://www.open.ac.uk/conditions terms and conditions), this content is made available under a http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2

Collaborative problem solving for community safety
This free course, Collaborative problem solving for community safety, offers a range of techniques for community police officers, other community-based public service professionals and members of community groups working to solve problems collaboratively and creatively. It examines some of the ways which OU specialists in creative problem solving recommend to tackle difficult problems, and how to implement them in a community setting. Author(s): Creator not set

License information
Related content

Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see http://www.open.ac.uk/conditions terms and conditions), this content is made available under a http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2

Managing my money for young adults
This free course, Managing my money for young adults, will help you start to think about managing your finances. You will learn how to budget effectively, and will be encouraged to start thinking about your financial future. First published on Mon, 12 Nov 2018 as Author(s): Creator not set

Business communication: writing a SWOT analysis
This free course, Business communication: writing a SWOT analysis, is designed to develop your writing skills for business. You will be taken step by step through the process of writing a SWOT analysis, with clear advice on selecting key information from a case study text, making concise notes, choosing an appropriate structure and using language effectively. You will learn how to write a formal report including recommendations, based on a case study analysis of the British company, Brompton Bic
Author(s): Creator not set

License information
Related content

Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see http://www.open.ac.uk/conditions terms and conditions), this content is made available under a http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2

Introducing the voluntary sector
This free course, Introducing the voluntary sector, will guide you through some of the distinctive features and values of the voluntary sector, how organisations are funded and involve volunteers and other ‘stakeholders’ in their work. It will also provide you with knowledge and skills you can apply to your own work or volunteering as well as your everyday life. Author(s): Creator not set

License information
Related content

Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see http://www.open.ac.uk/conditions terms and conditions), this content is made available under a http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2

Managing and managing people
This free course, Managing and managing people, will introduce you to the world of management. We will be looking at a range of topics, including what managers do, what skills they require, and how you can develop as a manager. First published on Thu, 11 Feb 2016 as Author(s): Creator not set

2.5 ‘Events, dear boy, events’

A further influence on accounting is, to borrow Macmillan, events. (Macmillan was the Prime Minister of the UK (1957–1963) who famously observed that the greatest obstacle to political achievement was ‘Events, dear boy, events’.)Countries' systems are overtaken by events of one kind or another that bring accounting consequences. Not least of these is war. Napoleon's desire to conquer Europe had the side effect of exporting his Roman law paradigm and the commercial code within it, to hal
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

2.1 Accounting rules and reality

In a seminal article, Hines (1988) demonstrates that when we draw up accounting rules, we determine what view of reality we present. At its simplest, if we decide that internally-generated intangibles should not be measured, we also determine that a whole class of assets owned by a company is not part of the picture given by the balance sheet, and therefore the ‘reality’ that the balance sheet is supposed to reflect is shaped by our decision on the accounting rules.

Those who make t
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

Learning outcomes

After studying this course, you should be able to:

  • identify factors that have influenced the development of financial reporting

  • provide examples of how those factors have effected change in particular countries

  • list a number of variables that affect the development of accounting rules in different jurisdictions

  • explain the contingent model of accounting change

  • apply the theories of accounting development to new situatio
    Author(s): The Open University

    License information
    Related content

    Copyright © 2016 The Open University

4.2.6 Getting agreement to the chosen solution

It is important to establish consensus as far as possible within the project team on the best solution, and to record your decision. Depending on your reporting arrangements and the severity of the problem, you may then need to prepare a formal report with recommendations for action and take it to the project sponsor(s) for agreement. Solutions have to be ‘sold’ to ensure that they are acceptable.


Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

4.2.5 Choosing the best option

When you have collected a broad range of options, each possible solution should be assessed for its feasibility. As the feasible options are narrowed down, you may choose to analyse three or four in detail. Appraise the possible consequences of implementing each of these, against your criteria for cost, time and quality.


Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Copyright © 2016 The Open University

4.2.4 Collecting possible solutions

This is the most creative part of the problem-solving process: it involves breaking the mindset within which situations are normally interpreted. Brainstorming is a good way to generate new approaches, by making sure that even apparently ridiculous ideas are not thrown out in the initial stages. Brainstorming has two basic principles:

  • quantity is more important than quality, in the creative phase;

  • critical comments are not allowed, at th
    Author(s): The Open University

    License information
    Related content

    Copyright © 2016 The Open University