2.2.2 Drawing the boundary

Deciding where to place the system boundary is an important consideration in that we have to think about what to include and exclude. This isn't always an easy decision to make and it often depends on the perspective of the person viewing the system.

The system maps in Figures 1
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Except for third party materials and/or otherwise stated (see terms and conditions) the content in OpenLearn is released for use under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share

4.5 Typical false match rates

A false match rate is expressed as a statistic such as ‘1 in 1000’. A rate of 1 in 1000 means that if a sample of biometric data is compared with random selections of other data, a false match occurs, on average, once every 1000 comparisons. False match rates vary widely between different biometric systems. The following figures are taken from Mansfield and Rejman-Greene (2003).

Using good-quality fingerprints, a false match rate for single prints can be around 1 in 100,000. This ra
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Except for third party materials and/or otherwise stated (see terms and conditions) the content in OpenLearn is released for use under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share

4.2 Data for identification

I have already mentioned signatures, photographs and fingerprints as examples of the kinds of data that have been used for authenticating a person's identity. Many other types of data have been used or suggested. DNA is widely used, but mostly in criminal investigations. Iris recognition, which relies on distinctive patterns in the coloured part of the eye, is another technique. Author(s): The Open University

References

Eyewitness Travel Guide (1997) Amsterdam. London, Dorling Kindersley. pp. 120-1.
Götz, V. (1998) Color and Type for the Screen. Berlin, RotoVision (in collaboration with Grey Press).
Hartley, J. (1994) Designing Instructional Text. 3rd edn. London, Kogan Page.
Michaelis, P. R. and Wiggins, R. H. (1982) ‘A human
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Except for third party materials and/or otherwise stated (see terms and conditions) the content in OpenLearn is released for use under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share

7.2 Difficulties in navigating e-commerce sites

People who are new to computing sometimes find the process of online ordering baffling and frustrating. They get ‘lost’ in the process – for example, by putting something into a virtual shopping cart and then remembering that there's something else they need to look for. So they return to the search engine or the catalogue and then can't find the cart. These kinds of commonly experienced difficulties can be addressed by good and adaptive site design, but still a disturbing proportion of
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Except for third party materials and/or otherwise stated (see terms and conditions) the content in OpenLearn is released for use under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share

6.2 Authority and the variety of information sources

Technology has massively increased the number and variety of news sources that we have access to. We still have printed books, magazines and newspapers, while digital techniques have increased the number of broadcast radio and TV channels that we can get. On the Web we have access to online versions of many of these. This allows us access to media that previously would have been inaccessible.

With traditional news sources such as these, we have some understanding of the authority that t
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Except for third party materials and/or otherwise stated (see terms and conditions) the content in OpenLearn is released for use under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share

6.9 Alternatives to the main success scenario

If a use case incorporates a scenario that is significantly different from the main success scenario, you may decide to create a new subsidiary use case. There may even be a need to create more than one subsidiary, depending on what happens in different circumstances. For example, when making a reservation in a typical hotel the receptionist would first determine whether the guest was already known to the hotel (among other advantages, this would speed up the reservation process since re-ente
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Except for third party materials and/or otherwise stated (see terms and conditions) the content in OpenLearn is released for use under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share

4.1 Introduction

Many of you will already be familiar with event processing if you have developed visual interfaces with the later versions of Java. Developing such an interface consists of a number of steps:

  • A visual object such as a button is placed in a container such as an applet or a object.
    Author(s): The Open University

    License information
    Related content

    Except for third party materials and/or otherwise stated (see terms and conditions) the content in OpenLearn is released for use under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share

7.2.7 Collaboration platforms

Companies whose internet offerings can be described by this business model provide sites which enable companies to collaborate with each other, usually when the companies are spread over large distances. For example, a company which runs a collaboration platform might provide facilities for companies who wish to come together in order to tender for a complex project in a particular market sector such as aerospace.


Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Except for third party materials and/or otherwise stated (see terms and conditions) the content in OpenLearn is released for use under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share

7.2.6 Third party marketplaces

A third party marketplace is characterised by websites which offer access to a number of related companies, for example companies that are wholesalers of office stationery. A distinguishing feature of this model is that the companies delegate the marketing and sales of their products to the company that administers the marketplace. Typically a website which operates as a third party marketplace would provide a common interface to the products or services which are being sold, together with fa
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Except for third party materials and/or otherwise stated (see terms and conditions) the content in OpenLearn is released for use under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share

3.1 Making sensation make sense

In the previous section you learned something about what data is, where it can be found, and how it can be used. But have you ever thought about how we get data in the first place? As human beings, we are so used to reading, writing, speaking and observing that we rarely think about the true origins of the data we commonly use with such ease. I don't intend taking you back to these origins – that would take too long. Rather, I want to describe how human beings ‘get’ data and put it into
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Except for third party materials and/or otherwise stated (see terms and conditions) the content in OpenLearn is released for use under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share

Understanding early years environments and children’s spaces
This unit considers some of the different environments children encounter in their early years. It encourages you to develop your reflection of children’s environments and provides opportunities for you to investigate and evaluate young children’s experiences and your role in supporting them. First published
Author(s): Creator not set

License information
Related content

Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see http://www.open.ac.uk/conditions terms and conditions), this content is made available under a http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2

3.6.6 Teach to learn

One of the most successful ways to learn something well is to teach it. Select a topic that you feel you know well and try teaching it to an imaginary person. As your teaching proceeds, you will quickly realise where there are gaps in your knowledge and understanding. Immediately you will begin to identify clearly what it is you are explaining. You will become aware of any aspects that you are less clear about, and can focus on those. Imagine you are explaining something to someone who keenly
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Except for third party materials and/or otherwise stated (see terms and conditions) the content in OpenLearn is released for use under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share

4.3 Making a plan

How you respond to this suggestion will depend on what sort of person you are. Many of us are great planners with timetables and lists for every part of our lives; others just get on with the priorities and everything else follows in due course. Planning is no guarantee everything will get done or that deadlines will be met, but the process of making a plan makes you focus on what the task entails and gives direction and purpose to your study. Studying does demand that most students need to p
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Except for third party materials and/or otherwise stated (see terms and conditions) the content in OpenLearn is released for use under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share

3 Different kinds of thinking

Thinking is something we do all of the time.

Activity 3

Briefly write the story of your day so far reflecting carefully on the amount and types of thinking you have done.


Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Except for third party materials and/or otherwise stated (see terms and conditions) the content in OpenLearn is released for use under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share

4.2 The wider social context – policy in the UK

In Section 3, you were introduced to a range of theories that have been developed within psychology to try to explain how learning takes place. These theories act as a starting point for how you might apply theory to your own learning. They also act as a starting point in applying academic skills. These skills include reading and note taking, but they also include thinking about what these theories might have to offer and what their weaknesses are. You may remember that we suggested three suc
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Except for third party materials and/or otherwise stated (see terms and conditions) the content in OpenLearn is released for use under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share

6.2.2 Representing visual and symbolic texts

We saw that when you discuss your judgements of a visual text such as the landscape painting or The Madonna and Child, you talk about its ‘composition’: the way the ‘picture space’ is organised; the relationships between ‘foreground’ and ‘background’, and between ‘figures’. You discuss the way ‘perspective’ is used in the painting to show ‘depth’; the painting's tonal range’, and its uses of ‘colour’, ‘shape’, ‘line’; ‘light’ and ‘shade
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Except for third party materials and/or otherwise stated (see terms and conditions) the content in OpenLearn is released for use under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share

1.2 Different arts and humanities subjects

If studying the arts and humanities helps us understand our culture so that we can live together more meaningfully, then why do we study particular subjects or ‘disciplines’ in our universities? You may be studying a single discipline: a language (ancient or modern), history, art, music, literature, film, law, religion, philosophy – and so forth; or some subjects combined, in multi- or inter-disciplinary studies. Why not the arts and humanities in general?

It is partly beca
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Except for third party materials and/or otherwise stated (see terms and conditions) the content in OpenLearn is released for use under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share

3 Roles

Quite often in work situations we are asked to work with a group of people we have not met before and with whom we may seem to have very little in common. The group, which may be labelled a ‘team’, could be tasked to organise or produce something about which some of the members may know more than others. After a period of initial awkwardness perhaps, the group members start to find out more about each other and attend to their task. It is quite likely that each of the members will then te
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Except for third party materials and/or otherwise stated (see terms and conditions) the content in OpenLearn is released for use under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share

9.5 Monitoring progress

Monitoring progress is about keeping track of how the work with others is going, making sure you are ‘on task’ and ‘on time’. You need to know how to monitor progress in managing a group activity and being a team member. This will involve considering the relationships within the group and managing the quality of the work by using the checkpoints to review the progress towards your goals and outcomes.

Monitoring progress in working with others involves you considering your progre
Author(s): The Open University

License information
Related content

Except for third party materials and/or otherwise stated (see terms and conditions) the content in OpenLearn is released for use under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share