2.2 Species showing torpor or deep hibernation

Among the birds, torpor occurs in a number of species in the orders Apodiformes (hummingbirds and swifts), Caprimulgiformes (nightjars, nighthawks, goatsuckers and poor wills) and Coliiformes (mousebirds). In all of the hummingbirds (family Trochilidae) studied to date, torpor, if it occurs, takes place on a daily (or more usually nightly) basis. They are able to re-warm themselves independently of T a and show an increased thermogenesis if T a falls below
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2.1 Degrees of torpor

Adaptive hypothermia occurs in at least six distantly related mammalian orders (Table 1) and in several orders of birds. There is a spectrum running from those species which can tolerate a drop in T b by 2° C for a few hours, to the seasonal deep hibernators which maintain a T b as low as 4° C for weeks on end.

Table 1 Groups o
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1 Hibernation and torpor: An introduction

This unit examines hibernation, a special form of adaptation that animals can make to the ecological demands of remaining in a chosen habitat in winter. Hibernation is a state which enables energy-efficient survival when ambient temperatures are so low that foraging or simply maintaining normal core body temperature and basal metabolic rate are either energetically too costly or impossible.

Polar endotherms can maintain a high T b even when living actively at sub-zero
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Learning outcomes

By the end of this unit you should be able to:

  • define and use, or recognize definitions and applications of, each of the bold terms;

  • give definitions of the terms ‘hibernation’, ‘torpor’ and ‘adaptive hypothermia’, and the three physiological processes that underlie them;

  • give examples of the diversity of the major groups of mammals and birds that contain hibernating species;

  • describe the physiological changes occur
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2.1 Nutrient budgeting

All plants and animals respond to environmental changes such as the light–dark cycle and temperature, but the impact of the environment on essential physiological processes such as eating, fattening and breeding is more evident and often more finely controlled in polar species than in those that are native to warmer and more equable habitats. Large effects are nearly always easier to quantify and to investigate experimentally, so arctic species offer an excellent opportunity to study the su
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4.2.1 Composition

The current three-way catalyst, shown schematically in Figure 1, is generally a multicomponent material, containing the precious metals rhodium, platinum and (to a lesser extent) palladium, ceria (CeO2), γ-alumina (Al2O3), and other metal oxides. It typically consists of a ceramic mono
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1.4.1 Salicylic acid

The structural formula of salicylic acid, 2.1, looks quite complicated. However, it becomes less daunting if you unpack it a bit. One of the first things to do when confronted with an unfamiliar structure is to check that all the valencies are correct (four for carbon, two for oxygen and one for hydrogen). If any atoms have the wrong valency, it follows that there is a mistake somewhere and the molecule does not exist as drawn. It looks OK for the structure of salicylic acid. You proba
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1.2.3 The transmission of genetic material

The full complement of 46 chromosomes in the human genome, the diploid number, is restored at fertilization. As Figure 3.1 shows, all the somatic cells and cells in the testes and ovaries arise from the same fertilized egg by the process of mitosis; the cells all contain copies of the same genetic material (with some exceptions).

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References

Castells, M. (1997) The Information Age: Economy, Society and Culture, vol. 2, The Power of Identity, Oxford, Blackwell.
Fiske, J. (1993) Introduction to Communication Theory, London and New York, Routledge.
Fuller, S. (1997) Science, Buckingham, Open University Press.
Gibbons, M. (1999) ‘Science's ne
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3.5 Conclusions

The contemporary context for science communication is changing as policy initiatives introduce options for dialogue and consultation between science and society. At the same time, new communications technologies are being introduced that facilitate novel science communication activities. These new technologies, which exist alongside well-established channels for science communication, mean that scientific knowledge has the potential to be visible to a wide range of audiences. Those audiences
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3.1 Introduction

In 2000, the House of Lords Select Committee on Science and Technology produced an influential report that highlighted the complex and increasingly problematic relationship between contemporary science and society, particularly in the field of biotechnology (House of Lords Select Committee on Science and Technology, 2000). The report argued that many of these concerns were seen by the public to be the result of a perceived lack of transparency in the relationship between science, industry, pu
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1.1 Popular conceptions about addiction and neural ageing

First of all, consider the following statements found in popular information media:

  • Some addictions are in the mind, like that to shopping, gambling or the internet, whereas others are in the body, like an addiction to heroin, alcohol or food.

  • Once you have tried cannabis, you are hooked for life. The craving for cannabis will never go away.

  • The thinking patterns of an addicted brain can never be changed.

  • Sm
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2.1.2 Diffraction and interference of light

When light, or indeed any type of wave, passes through a narrow aperture, it will spread out on the other side. This is the phenomenon of diffraction. For example Figure 17 shows the diffraction of water waves in a device called a ripple tank. The extent to which waves are diffracted depends on the size of the aperture rel
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1.6 Telescope mountings

A telescope with the largest light-gathering power, best point spread function and optimum image scale and field-of-view is of little use unless it is mounted in an appropriate way for tracking astronomical objects across the night sky. It is essential that a telescope can be pointed accurately at a particular position in the sky and made to track a given position as the Earth rotates on its axis.

Broadly speaking there are two main types of mounting for astronomical telescopes, known a
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1.6.3 Mailing lists and newsgroups

Mailing or discussion lists are e-mail based discussion groups. When you send an e-mail to a mailing list address, it is sent automatically to all the other members of the list.

The majority of academic-related mailing lists in the UK are maintained by JISCMail  You will find details of joining these mailing lists on the JISCMail website. Mailing lists are useful for getting in touch w
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1.4.2 P is for Presentation

By presentation, we mean, the way in which the information is communicated. You might want to ask yourself:

  • Is the language clear and easy to understand?

  • Is the information clearly laid out so that it is easy to read?

  • Are the fonts large enough and clear?

  • Are the colours effective? (e.g. white or yellow on black can be difficult to read)

  • If there are graphics or photos, do they help
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1.2.2 Choosing Keywords

Keywords are significant words which define the subject you are looking for. The importance of keywords is illustrated by the fact that there is a whole industry around providing advice to companies on how to select keywords for their websites that are likely to make it to the top of results lists generated by search engines. We often choose keywords as part of an iterative process; usually if we don't hit on the right search terms straight off, most of us tweak them as we go along based on t
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Introduction

In this unit, we will consider the nature of businesses and the principal forms of business organisation. The themes covered in Part A are company, business and capital; and in Part B, business mediums, sole traders, partnerships or firms, and assets and liabilities.

This study unit is an adapted extract from the Open University course W223 Company law and practice, which is no longer taught by the University. If you want to study formally with us, you may wish to explore other c
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Copyright © 2013 The Open University

Privacy rights and the law
Privacy has long been recognised as an important human right – but how does society balance this right with the protection of others, such as the right to freedom of expression? This unit will examine how privacy is protected in UK law and the impact on this of the European Convention on Human Rights. First published on Wed, 15 Jun 2011 as Author(s): Creator not set

Europe and the law
This unit will give you a basic understanding of EU law and the interaction between EU and domestic law. It will provide a brief explanation of the European Convention on Human Rights and other European legislation, as well as the background to such institutions as the European Council, the European Commission, the European Parliament and the European Court of Justice. First publish
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Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see http://www.open.ac.uk/conditions terms and conditions), this content is made available under a http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2