2.2 Marketing as a job title

The term ‘marketing’ became common in the UK during the 1960s. During that time it was quite common for businesses to rename their sales departments marketing departments. Communications and sales managers became marketing managers. Stephen King called this ‘thrust marketing’ (King, 1985). Although the functional name changed, managers typically still placed an emphasis on selling what the organisation made or the services it offered, cutting costs and manipulating prices, r
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2.1 Three approaches to marketing

This section has been written with the assumption that you have some prior marketing knowledge. As a brief revision you will read how marketing can be described both as an organisation-wide customer-orientated philosophy and as a functional department that handles activities concerned with understanding and satisfying customers’ needs. Studies show a direct link between the success of an organisation and the extent of its market orientation. These marketing concepts are applicable to both f
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5 Summary

The aim of this Unit has been to give you an introductory overview of operations management. Operations is one of the central functions of all organisations The first learning outcome was that you should be able to ‘define “operations” and “operations management”’. I took the view in this session that operations embraces all the activities required to create and deliver an organisation's goods or services to its customers or clients.

The secon
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4.1 The boundary of the operations system

The simple transformation model in Figure 1 provides a powerful tool for looking at operations in many different contexts. It helps us to analyse and design operations in many types of organisation at many levels.

This model can be developed by identifying the boundaries of the operations system through which an organisation's goods or services are provided to its customers or clients. Figure 3, shows this boundary an
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3.4 Transformation processes

A transformation process is any activity or group of activities that takes one or more inputs, transforms and adds value to them, and provides outputs for customers or clients. Where the inputs are raw materials, it is relatively easy to identify the transformation involved, as when milk is transformed into cheese and butter. Where the inputs are information or people, the nature of the transformation may be less obvious. For example, a hospital transforms ill patients (the input) into health
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3.1 The transformation model

The discussion above has highlighted the role of operations in creating and delivering the goods and services produced by an organisation for its customers. This section introduces the transformation model for analysing operations. This is shown in Figure 1, which represents the three components of operations: inputs, transformation processes and outputs. Operations management involves the systematic direction and control o
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2.1 Operations, operations management and operations managers

Every organisation has an operations function, whether or not it is called ‘operations’. The goal or purpose of most organisations involves the production of goods and/or services. To do this, they have to procure resources, convert them into outputs and distribute them to their intended users. The term operations embraces all the activities required to create and deliver an organisation's goods or services to its customers or clients.

Within large and complex organisations ope
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3 Unit summary

This unit should have given you some idea of the issues surrounding the concept of innovation, in particular the key concepts of invention and innovation, and the negative as well as the positive effects that innovations can bring. Although the business functions have been recognised in passing, you should be able to see how the functioning of an organisation can be affected by innovation. Remember that although innovation can take place within any one function of the organisation, this can
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1 The planning phase

Once the project brief has been agreed by the project sponsors and approved by the main stakeholders, you can move into the detailed planning phase. The project plan can become a working tool that helps to keep the project team focused on the project's tasks and activities and points them towards completion. It enables managers to keep track of resources, time and progress towards achieving objectives.

All projects are different and the planning for each will be different. The difficult
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4.3 Networks of objects
Enterprise systems are software applications that automate and integrate all many of the key business processes of an organisation. With some understanding of software development, you will learn about current development practices for this type of system and develop relevant skills to apply them to real-world problems. You will develop core skills in object-oriented analysis and design, allowing you to develop software that is fit for purpose, reusable and amenable to change.
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7.5 Materials costs

There will be many categories of materials, supplies and consumables used in a project. Once again, the materials that are in constant use and easily and ‘freely’ available in an organisation might be overlooked in costing the project. For example, it is easy to assume that stationary will be available in much the same way as it is for day-to-day work. However, a project is a bounded activity, and if you are to understand the full cost of achieving the outcomes, you will need to know
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7.4 Equipment costs

In many projects, staff costs are the most expensive element, but there are other costs to consider, such as materials and equipment. Indeed, in some projects (for example, some military and space projects) these other costs are at least as significant as staff costs. For organisational accounting purposes, a distinction will be required between capital expenditure, or the acquisition of fixed assets, and revenue expenditure, or the incurring of expenses. The work breakdown plan and the sched
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7.3 Staff costs

The staff time and staff-related costs need to be calculated. These include salaries, taxes, holidays, overtime, training, travel and subsistence, and accommodation for the number of staff for the time they will be needed. This raises all sorts of questions about the basis on which staff are costed and the relationship of the project budgeting system to other budgets and costing systems in the organisation. The basic assumptions underlying allocation of resources need careful consideration ea
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7.2 Revenues

Projects vary in how they are eventually financed. They can be purely commercial projects from which the products are sold at market prices, and so eventually the revenues they generate are expected to cover the costs and provide an operating profit. In the meantime, development costs and working capital have to be financed from share and loan capital raised by the organisation, the cost of which will be met from the profit the project makes. At the other extreme there are projects, in both f
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7.1 Introduction

Planning a project includes preparation of financial and related projections. Frequently, these will be used to:

  • weigh up the economic feasibility of the project;

  • obtain approval from a higher authority in the organisation for the project to proceed;

  • set boundaries of delegation or empowerment in a formal budget;

  • provide the basis for accounting for project revenues and costs;

  • provide
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4 Identifying deliverables

The project brief will identify the goals of the project and may express some of these as key objectives. At an early stage of planning you will need to identify all of the project objectives and the deliverables that are implied or required from each objective.

Each objective will identify a clear outcome. The outcome is the deliverable. In some cases, the outcome will be some sort of change achieved and in other cases it will be the production of something new. In either case, the pro
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3 Conclusion
If you've ever been involved in campaigning for change, you probably know that getting the desired result is much harder than it seems. Moreover, the decision to campaign on a particular issue can expose tensions and cracks within an organisation itself. This unit explores effective approaches to campaigning.
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2 Activity and questions
If you've ever been involved in campaigning for change, you probably know that getting the desired result is much harder than it seems. Moreover, the decision to campaign on a particular issue can expose tensions and cracks within an organisation itself. This unit explores effective approaches to campaigning.
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1 Problems facing campaigning organisations
If you've ever been involved in campaigning for change, you probably know that getting the desired result is much harder than it seems. Moreover, the decision to campaign on a particular issue can expose tensions and cracks within an organisation itself. This unit explores effective approaches to campaigning.
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3.2 Technology and costs in the short run

Advertising leaflets are dropping through letter boxes around the UK, as we are writing this chapter, from cable suppliers trying to attract new customers for their services. They promise to provide a telephone line, a bundle of television channels, an Internet connection, home shopping and movies-on-demand, all at a ‘bargain price’. These leaflets raise some interesting questions. How does expanding output of cable services by selling to new customers make it possible to offer them
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