5 The characteristics of ‘good’ information

Have you ever seen a set of published accounts for a company? If you haven’t or, even if you have, take a look at some now. (They are often called the annual report.)

Internet activities are intended to show you the large range of information available at your fingertips. Some of it is useful, most of it is not. Accountants are increasingly having to deal with growing quantities of information and many are having to search for relevant information as part of their jobs. These I
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5.3 The selection interview

The aim of the selection interview is to determine whether the candidate is interested in the job and competent to do it. A selection interview also has the following functions:

  • to explain the work of the organisation, the job and any features such as induction and probation

  • to set expectations on both sides, including a realistic discussion of any potential difficulties (if appropriate)

  • to enable the candidate to ass
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4.10 Shortlisting

It is common to shortlist up to six applicants per position, but the exact number may reflect the time you have available for interviewing and the strength of the applicants. The important point is to ensure that as far as possible you finish up with the best possible candidates on the shortlist. This can best be achieved by approaching the task systematically. In other words, the systematic use of criteria as detailed in the job specification should be preferred to reliance on intuition. It
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2 Effective recruitment and selection

The key to successful recruitment is to ensure that the criteria of suitability are overt and relevant to the job itself. Once these criteria are agreed and shared it is possible to make more rational decisions about someone's suitability for a job, based on evidence rather than ‘gut feeling’ or instinct. Effective recruitment and selection should not be about the luck of the draw. Systematic planning and preparation will increase the likelihood of taking on the right person. The key to e
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1 Overview

The unit begins by looking at how it can be difficult for a manager in the process of recruitment and selection to maintain objectivity. Drawing up clear criteria to use throughout recruitment and selection can help the process. It then addresses the difference between the person–job and person–organisation approaches to recruitment. Subsequent sections review the different tasks to be completed and the different methods which can be used by the manager in this important process.


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Learning outcomes

After studying this unit you should be able to:

  • list the skills and knowledge needed to conduct full and fair recruitment and selection, and be able to undertake it systematically.


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Acknowledgements

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3 Factors influencing culture

Where the culture of a business comes from, and how it develops, is the subject of much discussion within business studies. Every commentator seems to have their own list of key factors. One example is by Drennan (1992), who proposes twelve key factors that shape the culture of a business. These are:

  1. the influence of a dominant leader – the vision, management style and personality of the founder or leader in a business often has a significant influe
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2.2 Symbols within business

How have academics and managers attempted to diagnose these largely hidden aspects of business? One well-known example is provided by Trice and Beyer (1984), who concentrated on the idea of there being symbols within a business. They divided these into, first, high-level symbols, which are the more obvious ones such as company buildings and logos, and, second, low-level symbols. They suggested four categories of low-level symbols: practices, communications, physical forms and a common languag
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Learning outcomes

After studying this unit you should be able to:

  • explain the relationship between research on national cultures and the development of the culture perspective in business studies;

  • describe some of the problems of working in, and doing business with, businesses in other countries;

  • offer a definition of organisational culture;

  • recognise the factors that constitute or influence the culture of a business.


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Acknowledgements

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References

de Mooj, M. (2003) ‘Convergence and divergence in consumer behaviour: implications for global advertising’, International Journal of Advertising, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 183–202.
Hofstede, G. (c. 2007a) ‘A summary of my ideas about organizational cultures’ Geert Hofstede's Homepage [online] http://feweb.uvt.nl.center/hofstede/page4.htm (accessed 15 December 2007).
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Learning outcomes

By the end of this unit you should be able to:

  • identify some fundamental dimensions of national and organisational culture;

  • differentiate between various national and organisational cultures;

  • discuss ways in which culture influences organisational environments;

  • critically apply theories on culture to organisations and the environments in which they operate;

  • demonstrate an understanding of the ways in which organisationa
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Introduction

In very broad terms, ‘culture’ refers to the prevailing norms and values which guide the way people behave in a society or in an organisation. Culture at the level of an organisation is referred to as organisational culture, and culture at the level of a society is referred to as national culture.

Organisational culture refers to an organisation's own values, beliefs and learned ways of doing business. This is reflected in its structure and in the people who work in the organisatio
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References

Institute of Fundraising (2006) The Good Fundraising Guide: Where to start… London [online], Institute of Fundraising, http://www.institute-of-fundraising.org.uk/documents/good_fundraising_guide.pdf (Accessed 20 April 2007).
Lloyd, T. (2006) Cultural Giving, London, Directory of Social Change.
Mellor, P. (1983) ‘Advertising for legacy income’ in Norton, M
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6 Summary

Here is a summary of the main learning points from this unit:

  • The vast majority of people only become donors by being asked.

  • Acknowledging your own feelings about asking is an important step in becoming confident in this key skill.

  • A behavioural approach to asking concentrates on analysing and performing a sequence of activity: choosing the moment, setting the participants at ease, establishing mutuality, explanation,
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5 Legacy fundraising

Legacies are an extremely important source of income for many charities. In the UK they represent well over a quarter of the total income from individuals of the top 500 fundraising charities, with a particularly strong showing in healthcare and animal charities (Sargeant and Jay, 2004). Slightly fewer than half of adults in the UK have written wills, but more than one in ten of those who do, leave charitable bequests (Radcliffe, 2007). Figures like this suggest there is plenty of potential t
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4.3 The ‘maximum potential’ or ‘major support’ approach

It may be that your organisational resources and contacts do not permit a ‘top-down’ strategy of this nature. But that should not prevent you from adopting a big gift orientation. As you saw in relation to the donor matrix, it is better to think of a big gift as ‘the maximum contribution a donor can make’ rather than a fixed sum of money or measure of active support. The Pareto principle predicts that in any appeal or programme you are likely to secure the bulk of your target from a r
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3.6.3 Balancing emotional commitment with awareness and understanding

People's first donation is often prompted by an instinctive and emotional response to a direct appeal. Very rarely is it an informed or carefully calculated decision. Building on that initial response requires you to balance a recognition of your donors’ emotional investment with a need to develop their understanding and awareness of your cause and concerns – the head and heart messages central to your case statement. See Author(s): The Open University

3.5 Building the relationship: developing your donors

Donor development is all about ensuring that you and your donors get the most you can from your relationship in ways which are mutually agreeable and beneficial. It is the process by which, from their very first contact onwards, you can encourage and enable donors and supporters to make the maximum contribution they both desire and are capable of.

Effective donor and supporter development depends hugely on your capacity to keep an accurate record of each donor's unique involvement with
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