3.3.1 Mapmaking for the twenty-first century

In early mapmaking history, maps were compiled from travellers’ tales, sailors’ logs and other maps. Information could, therefore, come from various sources and different dates. By the nineteenth century, maps were being made by more technically and scientifically rigorous procedures. Recently, mapmaking has benefited from developments in electronic surveillance techniques and computer programming. The Ordnance Surveys are now using aerial photography coupled with detailed checking on the
Author(s): The Open University

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3.1 What do we mean by the word ‘care’?

‘Care’ is a loaded word. Care is not just about tender loving feelings, it is about work as well. Being seen as someone who needs care says something about a person – their competence, their position in society, their status. This section explores those meanings.

In the poem which opened the unit, care is a warm ‘feel good’ word, associated with what happens in nice families. But in the discussion of what a carer is in Section 1, it seemed that doing care was also hard work fo
Author(s): The Open University

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3 Audio activity

The three clips included in this section are taken from interviews with parents who contributed to the development of the Bedfordshire branch of Mencap.

As you listen to the clips, make notes on why change was needed, and on what pressures for change the speakers mention.

Clip 1

Author(s): The Open University

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5.6 The importance of size and habitat

The use of hibernation to gain energetic advantage must be weighed against a number of considerations, particularly animal size and behaviour, biogeographic distribution and habitat. Small animals, which can carry less fat and have a higher surface area to volume ratio and BMR, are more likely to lose energy as heat and in maintaining life functions if they do not use hypothermic strategies in winter. Few hibernating mammals have a total body mass greater than 5 kg. Indeed, in large animals t
Author(s): The Open University

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3.5.1 Final arousal

Emergence can be viewed as the final step in the series of periodic arousals. Instead of re-entering hibernation, the animal maintains the euthermic condition. The cue for maintaining this final arousal is probably not temperature, as some species emerge when T a is well below zero. It is also difficult to see how arousal could be affected by daylength, since the hibernating animal is usually underground in a cavity or a burrow. Perhaps fat or food stores reach a minimum lev
Author(s): The Open University

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