6.9 Alternatives to the main success scenario

If a use case incorporates a scenario that is significantly different from the main success scenario, you may decide to create a new subsidiary use case. There may even be a need to create more than one subsidiary, depending on what happens in different circumstances. For example, when making a reservation in a typical hotel the receptionist would first determine whether the guest was already known to the hotel (among other advantages, this would speed up the reservation process since re-ente
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4.1 Introduction

Many of you will already be familiar with event processing if you have developed visual interfaces with the later versions of Java. Developing such an interface consists of a number of steps:

  • A visual object such as a button is placed in a container such as an applet or a object.
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7.2.7 Collaboration platforms

Companies whose internet offerings can be described by this business model provide sites which enable companies to collaborate with each other, usually when the companies are spread over large distances. For example, a company which runs a collaboration platform might provide facilities for companies who wish to come together in order to tender for a complex project in a particular market sector such as aerospace.


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7.2.6 Third party marketplaces

A third party marketplace is characterised by websites which offer access to a number of related companies, for example companies that are wholesalers of office stationery. A distinguishing feature of this model is that the companies delegate the marketing and sales of their products to the company that administers the marketplace. Typically a website which operates as a third party marketplace would provide a common interface to the products or services which are being sold, together with fa
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3.1 Making sensation make sense

In the previous section you learned something about what data is, where it can be found, and how it can be used. But have you ever thought about how we get data in the first place? As human beings, we are so used to reading, writing, speaking and observing that we rarely think about the true origins of the data we commonly use with such ease. I don't intend taking you back to these origins – that would take too long. Rather, I want to describe how human beings ‘get’ data and put it into
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Understanding early years environments and children’s spaces
This unit considers some of the different environments children encounter in their early years. It encourages you to develop your reflection of children’s environments and provides opportunities for you to investigate and evaluate young children’s experiences and your role in supporting them. First published
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3.6.6 Teach to learn

One of the most successful ways to learn something well is to teach it. Select a topic that you feel you know well and try teaching it to an imaginary person. As your teaching proceeds, you will quickly realise where there are gaps in your knowledge and understanding. Immediately you will begin to identify clearly what it is you are explaining. You will become aware of any aspects that you are less clear about, and can focus on those. Imagine you are explaining something to someone who keenly
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4.3 Making a plan

How you respond to this suggestion will depend on what sort of person you are. Many of us are great planners with timetables and lists for every part of our lives; others just get on with the priorities and everything else follows in due course. Planning is no guarantee everything will get done or that deadlines will be met, but the process of making a plan makes you focus on what the task entails and gives direction and purpose to your study. Studying does demand that most students need to p
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3 Different kinds of thinking

Thinking is something we do all of the time.

Activity 3

Briefly write the story of your day so far reflecting carefully on the amount and types of thinking you have done.


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4.2 The wider social context – policy in the UK

In Section 3, you were introduced to a range of theories that have been developed within psychology to try to explain how learning takes place. These theories act as a starting point for how you might apply theory to your own learning. They also act as a starting point in applying academic skills. These skills include reading and note taking, but they also include thinking about what these theories might have to offer and what their weaknesses are. You may remember that we suggested three suc
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6.2.2 Representing visual and symbolic texts

We saw that when you discuss your judgements of a visual text such as the landscape painting or The Madonna and Child, you talk about its ‘composition’: the way the ‘picture space’ is organised; the relationships between ‘foreground’ and ‘background’, and between ‘figures’. You discuss the way ‘perspective’ is used in the painting to show ‘depth’; the painting's tonal range’, and its uses of ‘colour’, ‘shape’, ‘line’; ‘light’ and ‘shade
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1.2 Different arts and humanities subjects

If studying the arts and humanities helps us understand our culture so that we can live together more meaningfully, then why do we study particular subjects or ‘disciplines’ in our universities? You may be studying a single discipline: a language (ancient or modern), history, art, music, literature, film, law, religion, philosophy – and so forth; or some subjects combined, in multi- or inter-disciplinary studies. Why not the arts and humanities in general?

It is partly beca
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3 Roles

Quite often in work situations we are asked to work with a group of people we have not met before and with whom we may seem to have very little in common. The group, which may be labelled a ‘team’, could be tasked to organise or produce something about which some of the members may know more than others. After a period of initial awkwardness perhaps, the group members start to find out more about each other and attend to their task. It is quite likely that each of the members will then te
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9.5 Monitoring progress

Monitoring progress is about keeping track of how the work with others is going, making sure you are ‘on task’ and ‘on time’. You need to know how to monitor progress in managing a group activity and being a team member. This will involve considering the relationships within the group and managing the quality of the work by using the checkpoints to review the progress towards your goals and outcomes.

Monitoring progress in working with others involves you considering your progre
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4 Structure of the assessment units

This key skills assessment unit does not have specific questions with word limits and no statements indicating you include, say, an essay or a report. Instead, as you tackle the unit you need to ask yourself ‘Which pieces of work show my skills and capabilities to best advantage?’ When you have identified and selected evidence of your skills, you must then relate this evidence directly to the criteria.

This method of building a portfolio is based not on providing right or wrong answ
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5.2.2 Continuous variables

Not all numbers are discrete. Consider the following measurements:

  • times to run a marathon

  • temperatures recorded at intervals during a day

  • weight of each bunch of grapes sold at a supermarket yesterday.

Time, temperature and weight are all examples of numerical data, but there is not a restricted set of values that they can take. Whereas you can have 2 or 3 children in a family but not 2.5, with tempe
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3.3.1 Mapmaking for the twenty-first century

In early mapmaking history, maps were compiled from travellers’ tales, sailors’ logs and other maps. Information could, therefore, come from various sources and different dates. By the nineteenth century, maps were being made by more technically and scientifically rigorous procedures. Recently, mapmaking has benefited from developments in electronic surveillance techniques and computer programming. The Ordnance Surveys are now using aerial photography coupled with detailed checking on the
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6 Concluding thoughts

We seem to have come a long way and covered a great deal of ground since I approached this subject by explaining that a mechanism must exist to help us focus on one sound out of many. That clearly is one function of attention, but attention seems to have other functions too. The results of visual search experiments show that attention is a vital factor in joining together the features that make up an object, and the experiences of brain-damaged patients suggest that this feature-assembly role
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Introduction

School governors need the skills to develop working relationships with the school community. This unit will help you to understand what each stakeholder within the community needs, from headteacher to pupils and parents. Effective interaction between all parties can prevent problems from arising.


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3 Sharing the workload

The new terms of reference for the premises committee of one nursery school were clear. The committee would meet three times: in October, February and June. In October they would tour the school with the headteacher and agree what improvements could be made to the school environment. In February they would check how the work was progressing, identify the money that was to be available from the budget in April, and agree thei
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