1.2 Silences and concealment

Anthropologists and psychoanalysts use the term ‘taboo’ to describe forbidden activities, feelings or relationships. All societies seem to have particular rules and rituals to deal with bodily functions, sexuality and death, sometimes expressed in terms of hygiene or religion, and these keep them separated off from everyday life. When social rules function well they are invisible. We only notice them when we have committed a faux pas and caused embarrassment.

Marie very quick
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1.4.8 Comment on case studies

Vic was not consulted about his needs and the possibility of his death was never discussed. The uncertainty about his religious needs resulted in a staff member having to make a decision on his behalf and hope that it was the right one. An added dimension to the uncertainty about Vic’s wishes was the relationship which he had with his sons, in which there was a lot of unresolved conflict.

Li did not have a choice about her place of death because she was unable to speak, but previously
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Introduction

To set up a care relationship that works well is a delicate matter, whether you are at the giving or the receiving end. In this unit we explore the very varied meanings of care relationships and how these meanings arise. Millions of care relationships are going on as you read this, and each carries its own particular meanings for those involved. But where have all those people picked up their ideas of how to relate to each other? How does any of us know where to begin?

This material is
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References

Alzheimer's Disease Society (1996) Information Sheet 1, Alzheimer's Disease Society, Gordon House, 10 Greencoat Place, London SW1P 1PH.
Arias, E.G. (ed.) (1993) The Meaning and Use of Housing, Avebury, Aldershot.
Department of Health (2001) The Children Act Now: Messages from Research, The Stationery Office, London.
Dunlo
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1.5 Young carers

Who is left out of the definition of informal carer? At first sight, taking account of the four complications noted above means that no one is left out. The definition can embrace anyone who is taking unpaid responsibility for the welfare of another person. Where do children and young people come into this? Maybe in answering Activity 5 you considered whether parenting young children makes you a carer. Looking after young children is not usually seen as making someone a carer. It is seen as m
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2.4.3 abelling

The term ‘informal carer’ is a label. It was coined to describe people who take on unpaid responsibility for the welfare of another person. It is a term which has meaning only when the public world of care provision comes into contact with the private world of the family where caring is a day-to-day, unremarked-upon activity, like reminding a young child to clean her teeth. Labelling yourself as an informal carer requires a major shift in the way you see yourself, a shift neither Arthur n
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3 The heart, blood and the lungs

We will now concentrate on the heart, the engine of the body. We will also consider the related topics of blood and blood flow, and the role of the lungs and oxygen in the body.

We all know that the heart is very important but what exactly does the heart do? Why is the blood so important? What functions do the lungs perform? In the next sections, we will try to provide at least a basic understanding so we can answer these questions and begin to understand why knowing about the heart is
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4.3 How effective are antidepressants in general?

Despite the rapidly expanding use of antidepressants, to date there is very little evidence that they are effective for the treatment of bereavement or in mild to moderate types of depression. Recent meta-analyses (a technique for combining the results of a number of studies) reported by Joanna Moncrieff and Irving Kirsh, a British psychiatrist and psychologist respectively, show that selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs), such as paroxetine (Seroxat) and fluoxetine (Prozac), have
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3.1 Caring relationships

Activity 1

Listen to the two audio clips. While you are listening, make notes on the different kinds of caring relationships being described. For each person, note down:

  • how they feel about being a
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2 The carers

Figure 2: The Adur Carers Mobile Information Project

Through Jonathan and Jane, we hear from three people in different caring relationships. At the
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3.1 Conclusion

In this unit you have considered a range of responses and feelings that services users may experience during the transition into residential care, and have identified strategies that can be used to support them with this move. Passing on comprehensive information about the service user to care providers will help them to respond more effectively to the service user's needs. Being able to provide relatives and service users with information about possible placements and negotiating with provid
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Acknowledgements

The content acknowledged below is Proprietary (see terms and conditions) and is used under licence.

Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following sources for permission to reproduce material in this unit:

The content acknowledged below is Proprietary and is used under licence.

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References

Mencap (2001) Choice, Opportunity and Respect: Mencap's plan for the next five years, 2001–2006, London, Mencap.
Shennan, V. (1980) Our Concern: The Story of the National Society for Mentally Handicapped Children and Adults 1946–1980, London, National Society for Mentally Handicapped Children and Adults.
Walmsley, J. (2000) ‘Straddling boundaries: the cha
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4.1 Why was change needed?

Brenda Nickson highlights the absence of any support when her son was young; ignorance in the medical profession; the need for respite care, leisure provision, and some contact with other parents with similar problems.

Ann and Michael Tombs also mention the need for more services; the importance of a pressure group demanding changes; the need for a campaign to ensure that people with learning difficulties got treatment in hospital for things like cataract operations; alternatives to hos
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3 Audio activity

The three clips included in this section are taken from interviews with parents who contributed to the development of the Bedfordshire branch of Mencap.

As you listen to the clips, make notes on why change was needed, and on what pressures for change the speakers mention.

Clip 1

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1 A history of Bedforshire Mencap

Mencap (ENABLE in Scotland) is one of the UK's largest and best-known voluntary organisations. It was founded in 1946, when Judy Fryd, the mother of a daughter with learning difficulties, wrote to the magazine Nursery World, asking other parents of children with learning difficulties to write to her (Shennan, 1980). They did, in large numbers. One parent, Rene Harris, recalled the impact Judy Fryd had on her:

<
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Introduction

This unit is from our archive and it is an adapted extract from Care, welfare and community (K202) which is no longer in presentation. If you wish to study formally at The Open University, you may wish to explore the courses we offer in this curriculum area.

A major pressure for change in the way that social welfare services were provided and organised in the latt
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4 Gaynor and Liz comment on Anne's situation

Activity 4

In this final clip, you will Gayor and Liz talk about their views on Anne's situation. Listen to their comments and add any additional points to the notes you began in the previous section.

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3 Anne's experiences

Figure 1
Anne

Anne has arthritis and depression. She is a retired social worker who retired early on health grounds. Her assessment was carried out
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7 Audio clip 4: Paul

Paul was 30 years old when he was interviewed. He had been in and out of homelessness for most of his adult life, but had become a volunteer with the Cyrenians. He was living in a shared house with some other volunteers.

Paul spent much of his childhood in a caravan in Happy Valley, near the sea, with his parents, brothers and sisters. At 21, when he was living with his girlfriend and her parents, his daughter was born. When she was two months old, they were kicked out, and Paul went to
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