1.2 The influence of narratives and spiritual traditions

In his 1974 publication Man’s Responsibility for Nature, John Passmore – an Australian philosopher who pioneered a concern for developing a change of attitude towards the environment – argues from an explicitly anthropocentric perspective. He suggests that the special ties between parents and children provide the basis for continual development of obligations amongst humans, which can then translate into a more responsible engagement with the environment.

People normally ca
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4.2.1 Comparing the management systems

One approach to BS 8800 follows the ISO 14001 model, and the ISO 14001 system itself was closely modelled on the previous ISO 9000, with the 2000 revision of ISO 9000 following ISO 14001 principles. As a result, you may imagine that there are similarities between the standards. Many of the elements are similar, and some are nearly identical. Management systems share common elements, including developing and documenting procedures, training, record keeping, auditing, and corrective action. Fig
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6.4 Technology and environment

At the start of this unit I asked a simple question: am I damaging the environment by using my fridge? I warned that it wasn't my intention to give a simple answer that we should all stop using refrigerators or all carry on regardless. Instead, we have explored the issue more widely, calling on a range of ideas and background information in the Case Studies. It is time to review some of the concepts we have been using.


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5.3 Settlement, deforestation and endangered species

Box 4: Some indicators of New Zealand's environment*

The proportion of New Zealand converted to farmland is large by world standards (52 percent compared to the world's 37 percent in 1993). Although our human population density is comparatively low (13 people for each square kilometre (km2
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Acknowledgements

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The material acknowledged below is contained in: Ordering the International: History, Change and Transformation (eds William B
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Learning outcomes

After studying this unit you should be able to:

  • identify the economic issues faced by developing countries in mutilateral trade negotiations;

  • describe these issues from a developing country perspective;

  • explain how the economic power of nations impinges upon the ability of states to negotiate settlements that are beneficial to them.


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1.6 Defining global markets

Global markets for manufactured goods, as opposed to, say, primary commodities such as oil and timber, arose largely in the second half of the twentieth century as trade between countries intensified. The lowering of transport costs and the relative fall in trade barriers enabled firms in one country to compete wit
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1.2 Offshore fragments of industry

The rise of global factories in the 1970s owed much to the rapid improvement in transport and communications technologies which took place at that time and which made it possible to keep in touch with, and control, production processes in different parts of the world. Just as significant was the fragmentation of industrial production whereby parts of the manufacturing process could be relocated over vast distances. Sewing in garment and footwear production, for instance, was among the
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Acknowledgements

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Unit image

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All other material contained within this unit originated at t
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2.1 Learning and culture

As discussed in Reading 1.6, the behaviour of all living organisms that determines their resource use is mostly controlled by a set of models encoded in their genetic material. Most significant changes in the behaviour of a particular species of organism are usually a result of genetic evolution.
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1.3 Activities

Activity 2A sets the scene by focusing on the ‘big picture’ where you will be asked to choose between four alternative visions of the future. This activity radically shifts the scale of investigation from the personal to the global. However, as with all systems, the emergent behaviour of societ
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1.2 Readings

In considering the environmental and social challenges that we are currently facing, we are clearly dealing with so-called ‘wicked’ problems: the ‘problems’ manifest themselves only as you try to engage and change society and the Author(s): The Open University

Introduction

This unit will facilitate your own exploration of key environmental, social and economic threats that will converge to challenge communities in the near future. You will be required to develop this exploration according to three modes of modelling and communication: verbal, visual, and numeri
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6.1 Review

Let's see if we have made any progress in studying thermal effects. The following SAQ is based on Exercise 3, although this time I have a higher expectation of how much you should be able to do.

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4.3.1 Arrhenius's law

In 1889 Arrhenius, a Swedish chemist, put forward a model to describe the way in which the rates of many chemical reactions could be accelerated by increasing temperature. His model is based on the idea that the rate at which such chemical reactions happen is proportional to the number of particles with enough thermal energy to overcome some sort of energy barrier. In other words, it relates the rate at which things happen to the fraction of particles having energies beyond some threshold ene
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4.3 Thermally activated processes

Thermally activated processes are those that get going not because of average effects, but because the fraction of particles in the tail of the distribution increases with temperature. This is a basic property of the thermal distribution we have been discussing. For instance, what would take 30 000 years at room temperature may happen in under one second at 1000 K if it depends on how many particles have an energy in excess of 1 eV.

The next step in the study of energy distribu
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4.2 Energy distribution

Atoms without much thermal energy will not be doing very much. Consider fifty million million million (50 × 1018) silicon atoms, bonded into a single massive network; I've chosen silicon, but any elemental solid would do. It will be a speck just large enough to be seen without a microscope. You know that if it is heated it will expand, at some stage it will melt and then eventually it will vaporise – that is because thermal energy effectively ‘rattles it to bits’. Having the
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3.3 Thermal stresses

When the temperature of an object increases (say, by ΔT) it expands. According to the linear model of thermal expansion the length increase is described by

What if there is a temperature change, but some constraint prevents the proper thermal size changes? The constraint
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3.2 Room to rattle: modelling thermal expansion

In general, as the temperature of a piece of solid is raised the volume it occupies increases. I say ‘in general’ because as we shall see it is not always the case, and we ought to investigate whether we can exert any control over the phenomenon – which could be useful. Evidently, if a solid expands, the average spacing between its constituent parts must have increased. Since matter is made up of atoms, the issue is really about the volume occupied by the arrangements of atoms that make
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