5.2.2 Continuous variables

Not all numbers are discrete. Consider the following measurements:

  • times to run a marathon

  • temperatures recorded at intervals during a day

  • weight of each bunch of grapes sold at a supermarket yesterday.

Time, temperature and weight are all examples of numerical data, but there is not a restricted set of values that they can take. Whereas you can have 2 or 3 children in a family but not 2.5, with tempe
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3.3.1 Mapmaking for the twenty-first century

In early mapmaking history, maps were compiled from travellers’ tales, sailors’ logs and other maps. Information could, therefore, come from various sources and different dates. By the nineteenth century, maps were being made by more technically and scientifically rigorous procedures. Recently, mapmaking has benefited from developments in electronic surveillance techniques and computer programming. The Ordnance Surveys are now using aerial photography coupled with detailed checking on the
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6 Concluding thoughts

We seem to have come a long way and covered a great deal of ground since I approached this subject by explaining that a mechanism must exist to help us focus on one sound out of many. That clearly is one function of attention, but attention seems to have other functions too. The results of visual search experiments show that attention is a vital factor in joining together the features that make up an object, and the experiences of brain-damaged patients suggest that this feature-assembly role
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Introduction

School governors need the skills to develop working relationships with the school community. This unit will help you to understand what each stakeholder within the community needs, from headteacher to pupils and parents. Effective interaction between all parties can prevent problems from arising.


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3 Sharing the workload

The new terms of reference for the premises committee of one nursery school were clear. The committee would meet three times: in October, February and June. In October they would tour the school with the headteacher and agree what improvements could be made to the school environment. In February they would check how the work was progressing, identify the money that was to be available from the budget in April, and agree thei
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4.4.1 Do – anticipate that there may be disabled students

Every subject area is likely to have potential disabled students. Regardless of any feeling that you may have that students with particular disabilities will never want to do your course, you have to consider that they might apply and that you have a duty to consider your response.


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Reading and writing

Currently, over 97 per cent of primary schools use a commercial reading scheme and most have programmes for teaching phonics. Beginning readers commonly take words and reading books home to practise. Many schools use class and group novel studies to extend, or in the upper primary stages, to replace the reading scheme. Schools also supplement reading schemes with a variety of reading activities structured around the 5–14 strands.

Reading schemes are used in attainment groups, but whol
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Acknowledgements

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Author

Sue Platt has been a school governor for 21 years, at both primary and secondary
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Learning outcomes

By the end of this unit, you will have:

  • an awareness of methods of introducing film music to secondary school pupils;

  • an understanding of how the concept of music accompanying image can be applied to skills of composition;

  • an awareness of how to develop techniques of appraising and analysing film music through classroom activities.


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References

Claiborne, R. (1983; this edition 1990) The Life and Times of the English Language: The History of our Marvellous Native Tongue, Bloomsbury.
Tolkien, J. R. R. (1954; this edition 2003) The Lord of the Rings: The Two Towers, HarperCollins.
Bodmer, F. (1943) The Loom of Language, London: Allen & Unwin (republished Merlin Press, 1981).
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Acknowledgements

Author Details

Professor David Lambert is Chief Executive of the Geographical but remains Research Associate of the Institute of Education (London). He is a former secondary geography teacher (for 12 years) and developed a scholarly interest in assessment issues following the introduction of the national curriculum. He also has a research interest in the way teachers select and use textbooks with pupils. He has a long-standing concern with mo
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Acknowledgements

Author Details

Amanda Burrows is a graduate of Laban and gained an MA in Education from The Open University. She has taught dance in secondary schools, FE colleges, universities and in community settings. Amanda is currently Head of Curriculum for Visual, Performing Arts and Media at Grantham College, and has produced materials for the Open Univerity's Teachandlearn.net, repurposed here for openlearn.

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4 Performance skills

Performance skills are those aspects that set dancing apart from mechanical movement. Often, our attention is drawn to the dancer who is using a range of performance skills effectively, because they stand out from the rest.

Performance skills are aspects such as:

  • focus;

  • projection;

  • musicality;

  • timing;

  • emphasis;

  • expression.

All of these aspects a
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1.3 Warm-up activities

A variety of actions might be included in warm-up activities, and there is good reason for keeping these simple and repetitive. If the brain and muscles have to concentrate on learning new and complex patterns of movement, then this takes attention away from raising the core body temperature by 1 or 2 degrees and increasing the heart rate enough to perspire.

Movements might include:

  • walks gradually increasing in speed to a small run;


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Author Details

This unit was originally prepared for TeachandLearn.net by Diane Ne
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4.1 Introduction

Evidence about teaching and learning is now collected for many purposes: systematic teacher appraisal, induction training for newly qualified teachers, developing the skills of initial trainees or honing those of more experienced practitioners as they work towards threshold targets. Much of this evidence is gained through observations of lessons and conversations or interviews with teachers, student teachers and pupils. As Wragg (1994) has suggested, if lessons are worth observing they are al
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2.2 Working together to support and challenge

Planning and evaluation are essential aspects of teaching, but very difficult to observe. Through working together and collaboratively planning teaching and evaluating lessons, the student teacher can learn how experienced teachers carry these out. This phase is an important transition between the student teacher supporting the mentor in the classroom, and taking full responsibility for the class. Involving student teachers in the minutiae of lesson planning is an important part of helping th
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1.3.12 Internet resources

There are many websites where you will find useful information for education. With all information on the internet you need to make a judgement on the reliability of the information.

UCAS (Universities and Colleges Admissions Service for the UK) Site contents include course information
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3.3 Distinctive contributions

In Activity 1 you looked at brief descriptions of the duties of classroom support staff working in eight schools across the UK. Despite the brevity of information, there is sufficient to suggest that teaching assistants in these schools have wide ranging roles, and that their different titles relate to different types of responsibilities. Let us now consider the essential nature of the work that assistants do and the way they contribute to the totality of work in a classroom.

Are teachi
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1.4 Ways of working and contributing

The physical design of most primary schools certainly reflects the expectation that teachers work in classrooms with large numbers of children. In fact, given their large classes, most schools feel quite crowded. The employment of teaching assistants has doubled the number of adults working in some classrooms and, as Schlapp and Davidson note in the pdf document attached in Author(s): The Open University